Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Dictionary of philosophy and psychology including many of the principal conceptions of ethics, logics, aesthetics ... and giving a terminology in English, French, German and Italian, vol. 2 [lead-zwing]
Baldwin, James Mark
of individual training. A man of culture and 
large literary training may read and write as 
easily and as fluently as he understands and 
speaks, and with no reference to spoken lan¬ 
guage ; but for a poorly educated person 
reading is a distinct translation into auditory 
symbols, while writing is hardly more than 
drawing ; and such differences will be reflected 
in speech defects. Along with these differences 
should also be noted the varying prominence 
which visual and auditory and muscular pro¬ 
cesses occupy in different minds—eye-miuded- 
ness, ear-mindedness, motor-mindedness, &c. 
Cf. Type (mental). 
It is also to be noted that the language 
processes in which there is no outward 
expression, or only a very suppressed expres¬ 
sion, are significant in the conception of the 
factors involved. The name Internal Speech 
(q. v.) is given to these, and they consist of 
reading to oneself and in formulating 
words for speech or thinking in verbal terms. 
Such processes are often but vaguely realized, 
and evade close examination, but their integ¬ 
rity is essential to a complete speech develoji- 
ment, and their preservation in speech defects 
is often significant. 
II. Disorders of speech. The complete act 
of speaking involves (a) the capacity to think 
or formulate ideas; (b) the ability to recall 
and construct the words which express the 
ideas; and (c) the actual articulation of con¬ 
ventional sounds. Receptive speech involves 
an impressibility of the ear or eye, a recogni¬ 
tion of the particular sounds or symbols used, 
and an intelligence and training sufficient to 
appreciate their significance. If there is a 
defect in hearing or seeing, it may modify 
or intei’fere with normal speech processes, 
but it does so only secondarily, such defects 
being primarily of the ear and eye. If 
there is a defect in articulation due to 
partial paralysis or faulty structure of 
portions of the vocal mechanism, such defect 
interferes with perfect speech, but is not a true 
aphasia or disorder of speech, but a disorder 
of articulation. Again, any disorder of the 
intellect which makes speech impossible or 
incoherent is primarily mental and not specific¬ 
ally aphasie ; the defective speech, or inability 
to speak, of an idiot or of a demented person is 
a part of his general mental deficiency. There 
are, however, certain nervous difficulties 
which affect speech, and certain faults of arti¬ 
culation, some of them of a composite character, 
which it is customary to consider in connection 
with true disorders of speech. We may thus 
(following Séglas) distinguish (a) the dyslogias 
or disorders of intelligence which affect speech, 
(b) the dysphasias or true disorders of speech, 
and (c) the dyslalias or dysarthrias, i. e. diffi¬ 
culties of articulation. 
[These three types of defect correspond to 
the three ‘ levels ’ of nervous process usu¬ 
ally distinguished as ‘ first,’ * second,’ and 
‘ third ’ level. The lowest, or third, is purely 
sensori-motor, but its impairment may be 
sensory or central as well as purely articu¬ 
latory—as is seen in verbal Amimia (q. v.) of 
central origin. (j.m.b.)] 
(a) Dyslogia. There is a form of defect in 
children in which, without deafness and with¬ 
out paralysis, speech fails to appear; this is 
sometimes termed congenital aphasia. There 
is usually a good understanding for words, but 
the impulse to speak or the power to develop 
the motor speech centre is abnormally weak. 
Such cases often develop speech very late, and 
may retain marked articulatory defects. 
Apart from dementia and idiocy and general 
mental disorganization, there are several 
functional disorders characterized by absence 
of speech or defective speech which are partly 
of mental origin; these will be considered 
under functional aphasia. Cf. Alogia, Apha¬ 
sia, Cataphasia, Echolalia. 
(5) Dysphasia is more commonly termed 
aphasia in the general sense of impairment of 
some one or more of the factors of speech, not 
due to intellectual defect nor to defect of the 
articulation or externalization of words. Such 
defects form the main subject of this article. 
Cf. Aphasia. 
(c) Dyslalia or dysarthria, or defects in 
articulation, are of various kinds and affect 
different portions of the composite result. 
As the result of articulation is guided and 
corrected by the ear, any serious defect in 
hearing will affect articulation. The clearest 
example of this appears in the mutism that 
results from congenital or early deafness (cf. 
Deae-mutism), and also in the faulty articu¬ 
lation and modulation of deaf persons who 
have been taught to speak by the guidance of 
kinaesthetic muscle sensations alone. Of 
defects of articulation due to specific motor 
disorders may be mentioned Stuttering 
(q. v.), Lalling (q. v.), the characteristic de¬ 
fects of young children, Aphonia (q. v.) or 
difficulty in voicing the articulation, and 
various forms of special difficulties in con¬ 
nection with specific letters and sounds (cf. 
Anarthria). See also Amimia. 
III. Aphasia : History. The modern study 


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