Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Dictionary of philosophy and psychology including many of the principal conceptions of ethics, logics, aesthetics ... and giving a terminology in English, French, German and Italian, vol. 2 [lead-zwing]
Baldwin, James Mark
regards the existence of a material world was 
reached by Arthur Collier (Clavis Universalis), 
but, like Berkeley, he did not question the 
independent existence of God and other 
Descartes, Locke, and Berkeley had all 
assumed the self to be an independent sub¬ 
stance, or self-existing entity, and had relied 
upon the principle of causality to demonstrate 
the existence of God as a distinct entity. 
Hume assailed both these positions. He ac¬ 
cepts unreservedly the doctrine that all the 
contents of experience must be some aspect or 
mode of ‘ consciousness/ Our world is the 
‘ world of the imagination/ and we can never 
transcend this. But the concept of cause 
cannot be relied upon to carry us beyond our 
own perceptions. The existence of any ex¬ 
ternal cause for our impressions is a matter 
concerning which we can make absolutely no 
affirmations. The impressions may be pro¬ 
duced by God, by external objects, or by the 
mind. Belief in the existence of an external 
world is due to a propensity to feign a 
separate and continued existence for our per¬ 
ceptions. While, therefore, Hume did not 
dogmatically assert the sole existence of the 
self, he had reached the position which Kant 
characterized as ‘ a scandal to philosophy and 
to human reason in general/ that we should 
have to accept the existence of things without 
us (from which we derive the whole material 
of knowledge for our own internal sense) on 
faith only, unable to meet with any satis¬ 
factory proof an opponent who is pleased to 
doubt it. 
Kant sought to meet this position of sol¬ 
ipsism by better analysis of the meaning of self- 
consciousness. He maintains that while all 
objects of knowledge are necessarily objects of 
consciousness, the distinction between subject 
and object, or between the empirical ‘self' 
and the outer world, is a distinction within 
consciousness, and not a distinction between 
consciousness and something outside of con¬ 
sciousness. In fact, the external is logically 
prior to the internal, since it is only as con¬ 
trasted with the external that the internal 
self, as existing in time, is definitely conscious 
of itself as such. Kant, however, was not 
entirely consistent in his expressions upon 
this point, and as certain of his later frag¬ 
ments show, he connected the proof for the 
existence of objects within consciousness with 
the proof of the existence of things by them¬ 
selves, since an appearance without something 
that appears would be a logical absurdity. 
Fichte, though making the ‘ I ’ the central 
principle of his system, was not a solipsist, for 
the ‘ I ’ of his science of knowledge was not 
the individual. His problem was rather the 
analysis of the general conditions of conscious¬ 
ness. Mill, in his definition of the external 
world as permanent possibilities of sensation, 
repeated the Berkeleian analysis. Kecent dis¬ 
cussions between Neo-Kantians and Bealists 
(see Realism) have turned very largely upon 
ambiguities above referred to. 
Literature : Külpe, Introd. to Philos., 194 f.; 
Bradley, Appearance and Reality, chap, 
xxi ; Ladd, Philos, of Knowledge, chap, vii ; 
Erhardt, Metaphysik, chap, x; Schubert- 
Soldern, Grundlagen ein er Erkenntnisstheorie, 
chap, iii; Leclair, Beitr. z. einer monistischen 
Erkenntnisstheorie, 113 ff. ; Hamilton, Notes 
B and C in ed. of Heid; Mill, Exam, of 
Hamilton, chaps, x f. ; von Hartmann, Neu.- 
Kantianismus u. Schopenhauerismus; Vol- 
kelt, Erfahrung u. Denken ; Bergmann, in 
Zeitsch. f. Philos., ex ; König and Hartmann, 
ibid., xcix, ciii f., eviii f. ; Seth, Ritchie, 
Tufts, in Philos. Rev., 1893-6; Zeller, 
Vorträge u. Abhandl., iii. 225 ff. (j.h.t.) 
Solon, (eîr. 638-cir. 558 b.c.) A native 
of Salamis, and a merchant by education and 
profession, he travelled much in Greece, 
Western Asia, and Egypt, acquiring the know¬ 
ledge which made him the statesman and 
lawgiver of his native city. He was the first 
archon of Athens, and gave to the city the 
democratic organization which led to its 
greatness. He died during the war against 
Pisistratus. He was one of the greatest of 
1 law-givers ’ and was one of the ‘ seven wise 
men’ of ancient Greece. See Code (in law). 
Solution [Lat. solutio, from solvere, to 
melt] : Ger. Lösung ; Fr. solution ; Ital. 
soluzione. (1) The solution of a geometrical 
problem consists in : (a) describing a con¬ 
struction; (6) proving that that construction 
would satisfy the requisita of the problem ; 
(c) proving that the construction is possible 
when the problem has any solution. 
(2) The solution of an equation or system 
of equations has various meanings in different 
branches of analysis. Only in elementary 
algebra does it mean giving an algebraical 
equation of which the unknown forms one 
member while no unknown enters upon the 
other side. 
(3) The answer to a general speculative pro¬ 
blem of pure deductive logic : how can a given 
form of relationship hold good1? (c.s.p.) 
Soma [Gr. crôga, body] : same in other 


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