Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Dictionary of philosophy and psychology including many of the principal conceptions of ethics, logics, aesthetics ... and giving a terminology in English, French, German and Italian, vol. 2 [lead-zwing]
Baldwin, James Mark
Logique sociale ; Le Bon, The Psychol, of 
Peoples (Eng. trans.); Mackenzie, Introd. 
to Social Philos. ; Fedeeici, Le leggi del 
progresso (1885); Baeth, Geschichtsphilos. 
als Soziol., i ; Lacombe, La Sei. de l’Hist. ; 
Baldwin, Social and Eth. Interpret. (31’d 
ed.). See also Biological Analogy, and 
Imitation. (j.m.b.-e.m.) 
Social Force: Ger. soziale Kraft; Fr. 
force sociale ; Ital. forza sociale. The ground 
of social change so far as it is internal or 
intrinsic to the social organization in which 
the change occurs. Cf. Foece (various topics). 
The common confusion between force and 
energy should be avoided here. In the words 
of the author of„the article on another topic — 
Eneegy (q. v.)—‘ Spencers exposition of the 
subject is defective through trying to extend 
the conception of energy into fields where no 
transformation of mechanical energy into the 
concepts of the field is possible.’ Energy is 
amount of change produced measured in terms 
of exact units. For social change there are 
no exact units of measurement, and it is 
impossible to bring over physical units into 
this field. To illustrate what social energy 
would be, suppose we assume that one act of 
imitation by one individual of another is the 
unit of quantity or mass (m), then in a given 
case of propagation of an idea in society we 
would have the kinetic social energy of a series 
of changes KE = —, where m is one imita¬ 
tion and v is the rapidity with which such 
imitations occur—a grotesque aping of phy¬ 
sics. (J.M.B., G.F.S.) 
A point of great importance in the history 
of the term is the differentiation of the con¬ 
ception of social force from that of forces that 
create society. The term has long been in¬ 
accurately used to designate the latter. Comte 
so used it, and the usage was followed by 
Spencer, Ward, de Greef, Patten, and others. 
Cf. Foece and Condition, and Socionomic 
FOECES. (E.H.G., J.M.B.) 
Social Heredity : see Hebedity (2), and 
Teadition (in biology). 
Social Logic : Ger. soziale Logik ; Fr. 
logique sociale ; Ital. logica sociale. The form 
of Social Peocess (q. v.) considered as 
analogous to the form of union of premises 
in a logical conclusion. 
The terms social logic (Tarde, Za 
Logique sociale) and ‘ mental energy’ (Wundt) 
are used in connection with ways of looking 
at social evolution more or less analogically7. 
The former considers social organization as 
analogous with the form of syllogistic reason¬ 
ing ; the latter considers it under analogy 
with physical energy—a so-called ‘ law of 
increase of mental energy ’ being true of social 
evolution, while in physics there is conserva¬ 
tion öf energy. As to the latter view, the 
remarks made under Social Foece would 
seem to be applicable ; the conception of energy 
has no legitimate application. (j.m.b.) 
Social Opposition : Ger. soziale Oppo¬ 
sition (or Streit) ; Fr. opposition sociale ; Ital. 
opposizione sociale. Interference or conflict 
in the operation of Social Foeces (q. v.) : as 
in Competition, Rivalky (q. v.), oppression, 
revolt, &c., considered as involving social forces 
(cf. Tarde, Social Laws, Eng. trans., Opposi¬ 
tion universelle, and Psycholoqie économique, 
1901). (J.M.B.) 
Social Organism : Ger. sozialer Organ¬ 
ismus ; Fr. organisme social ; Ital. organismo 
sociale. The organized body of society con¬ 
sidered under the analogy of the physiological 
or biological organism. See Biological 
Both the utility and the exact meaning of . 
this analogy are much discussed. The tendency 
of those who consider society an organism is to 
depart from the strict biological conception 
of organism and to give the term a larger 
meaning. Cf. Oeganism, and Oeganization. 
Literature : see the references under Socio¬ 
logy, and Biological Analogy. (j.m.b.) 
Social Organization : Ger. soziale Organi¬ 
sation ; Fr. organisation sociale ; Ital. organiz- 
zazione sociale. That relation among indi¬ 
viduals established, at least in part, by their 
use of their minds and through their inter¬ 
course, and sufficiently stable and progressive 
to be called an Oeganization (q. v.); also 
the process of the rise of such relationships. 
The problem of social organization as a 
genetic and comparative question belongs to 
general Sociology (q.v.); its investigation 
under various phases and by different methods 
belongs to the special Social Sciences 
(q.v.). As a matter belonging to sociology, 
two great questions may be separately treated, 
although it is only by abstraction that this 
separation is effected: (1) the problem of 
social matter—what is the matter organized 1 
—and (2) how is this matter organized ?— 
by what method or process 1 
In answer to the first of these questions, 
various sorts of matter are held to be intrinsic 
to social organization: individuals, as such, 
minds and bodies ; minds of any order ; minds 
of a relatively high order ; thoughts ; beliefs ;


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