Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Dictionary of philosophy and psychology including many of the principal conceptions of ethics, logics, aesthetics ... and giving a terminology in English, French, German and Italian, vol. 2 [lead-zwing]
Baldwin, James Mark
Simple [Lat. simplex, from sim, same, one, 
+ plicare, to fold] : Ger. einfach ; Fr. simple ; 
Ital. semplice. Original or first in its nature ; 
elementary ; without parts or complication : 
opposed to Complex (q. v.), Compound (q.v.), 
and derived. (c.s.p.-j.m.b.) 
Simple acceptation', the acceptation of a term 
to signify a nature abstracted from existence, 
as ‘ animal is the genus of man ’ (Century 
Diet.). (c.s.p.) 
Simple agreement : the agreement of one 
thing with another; opposed to analogy or 
the agreement of many things with many. 
Simple agreement is either essential (which is 
identity in the sense of unity of essence) or 
accidental. Accidental simple agreement is 
either internal or external ; the former being 
either equality or likeness, the latter co¬ 
relationship to thirds which agree. 
Simple apprehension', (i) the faculty or 
act of apprehending without forming judg¬ 
ments. See Apebehension (2). (2) Intui¬ 
tion (q.v., in philosophy). 
Simple Compaeison (q. v.) : the faculty or 
act by which the subject and predicate of a 
judgment are compared (cf. Century Diet.). 
Simple concept : a concept of which no 
other definite concept (at any rate, no first- 
intentional concept) can be predicated. 
Simple consequence : (1) an inference 
drawn from a single premise. This was the 
standard form of setting forth arguments in 
the scholastic writings of the middle ages. 
The suppressed major premise was called the 
consequentia. (2) An inference drawn from 
a single premise, from which the conclusion 
follows by virtue of the meaning of the middle 
Simple Convebsion (q. v.) : the immediate 
inference from a proposition to another pro¬ 
position differing from the former only by the 
interchange of subject-term and predicate- 
Simple enumeration : a term of Francis 
Bacon’s, by which he means mentioning a 
number of instances of a’s which are b’s, 
and thence concluding that every single a 
is a b, of which he well says : £ Inductio 
quae procedit per enumerationem sim- 
plicem res puerilis est, et precario concludit, 
et periculo exponitur ab instantia contra¬ 
dictors, et plerumque secundum pauciora 
quam par est, et ex his tantummodo quae 
praesto sunt, pronunciat.’ It is not in 
truth induction, but a singularly futile sort 
of presumption. 
Simple enunciation : a proposition which is 
not resolvable into copulative or disjunctive 
parts. Thus, ‘ All men are all rational animals ’ 
is resolvable into ‘ Every man is a rational 
animal, and every rational animal is a man.’ 
So ‘ Every man is a rational animal ’ is resolv¬ 
able into ‘Every man is rational, and every man 
is an animal.’ But though perhaps every pro¬ 
position of the form £ Every S is P ’ is com¬ 
posite, yet the form itself may be regarded as 
Simple interpretation. In this phrase, inter¬ 
pretation means the subject of Aristotle’s 
Peri hermeneias, that is to say, a Symbol 
(q. v.). A simple interpretation is one which 
does not have (either expressed in words or 
in circumstances) one part to show what it 
denotes and another to show what it signifies ; 
that is to say, it is a term or rhema (Peedi- 
cate, q.v., 2). 
Simple Mode (q. v., ad fin.) : a term of 
Locke’s {Essay, II. xii. 5) ; a variation of one 
simple idea. 
Simple necessity : the necessity of that 
whose contradictory involves contradiction 
(Scotus, Opus Oxon., IV. xii. 7), 
Simple part : a part which has no parts in 
the sense in which it is itself a part. 
Simple power : the same as pure power, or 
that passive power which belongs to £ first ’ 
Matteb (q. v., Aristotle’s use). 
Simple probation : a proof consisting of a 
single syllogism. 
Simple proposition : simple enunciation 
(q.v. above). Yet all categorical propositions 
are sometimes so called. 
Simple question : a question which asks 
either whether or what anything is, as contra¬ 
distinguished from a complex question which 
asks of a thing whether or why it has a 
certain character. 
Simple supposition : simple acceptation 
(q. v. above). Petrus Hispanus says : ‘ Acci- 
dentalium suppositionum alia simplex; alia 
personalis. Suppositio accidental!s simplex 
est acceptio termini communis pro re uni- 
versali significata per ipsum terminum : ut 
cum dicitur, homo est species, animal est 
genus.’ Ockham (Logica, I. lxiv) says : ‘ Est 
autem primo sciendum quod suppositio primo 
dividitur in suppositionem simplicem, per¬ 
sonalem, et materialem. . . . Suppositio sim¬ 
plex est quando terminus supponit pro 
intentione animae sed non tenetur significa¬ 
tive. Yerbi gratia, dicendo sic, homo est 
species, file terminus homo supponit pro in¬ 
tentione animae, quia ilia intentio est species, 
;i Mm2


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