Volltext: Dictionary of philosophy and psychology including many of the principal conceptions of ethics, logics, aesthetics ... and giving a terminology in English, French, German and Italian, vol. 2 [lead-zwing] (2)

the relative importance of sex differentia, it 
may serve to indicate some of the rubrics 
which command present investigation. The 
general principles under which sex differences 
are viewed are everywhere important, and 
find a suitable representation in the best 
discussions. Another phase of the literature, 
which cannot be further referred to, is con¬ 
cerned with the social and industrial aspect 
of the occupations of the sexes and their 
adaptation to the conditions of modern society. 
The educational aspect of this general problem 
has for decades been prominent, and forms 
one of the several practical questions upon 
which the determination of derived characters 
has an important hearing. 
Literature : Havelock Ellis, Man and 
Woman (1895), and Studies in the Psychol, of 
Sex, i (1898); H. Campbell, Differences in 
the Nervous Organization of Man and Woman 
(1891); Thomas, Metabolism of the Sexes, 
Amer. J. of Sociol., iii. 31, and 7541 
Romanes, Nineteenth Cent. (May, 1887); 
Ploss and Bartels, Das Weib in der Natur- 
u. Völkerkunde (3rd ed., 1891); Mason, 
Woman’s Share in Primitive Culture (1894); 
Higginson, Common Sense about Woman 
(1891) ; Lombroso and Ferrero, La Donna 
(1891); Baldwin, art. Woman, in Johnson’s 
Univl. Cyc., suppl. vol. (1899). (j.j.) 
Sexual Feeling : Ger. geschlechtliches 
Gefühl’, Fr. sentiment sexuel; Ital. senti- 
mento sessuale. A whole system of emotions 
and feelings which arise and develop in con¬ 
nection with the organic craving dependent 
on sexual relations. Cf. Sexual Sensation, 
and Sexual Characters. (g.e.s.) 
Sexual Reproduction : Ger. geschlecht¬ 
liche Fortpflanzung ; Fr. reproduction sexuelle ; 
Ital. riproduzione sessuale. The multiplica¬ 
tion of individuals of the same species by 
means of gonads (fertilized germ-cells, ova, 
and spermatozoa). 
Synonymous with Gamogenesis (q. v.). 
See also Fertilization, and Sex. (c.s.m.) 
Sexual Selection : G er. sexuelle Auslese 
{Selektion), geschlechtliche Zuchtwahl’, Fr. 
sélection sexuelle ; Ital. selezione sessuale. The 
more or less conscious selection of one mate 
by another, and its influence on subsequent 
evolution. See Selection (in biology, b), 
and Factors of Evolution. 
Suggested and expounded by Charles 
Darwin as supplementary to natural selection, 
it has held its place in the theory of evolution. 
It is now generally held, however, that Darwin 
laid too much stress on the conscious prefer¬ 
ence of the female for the male which she 
selects over others, as if she compared them 
before choosing. The theory, as at present 
held, makes the selection a simple response, 
largely of organic kind, to the increased sexual 
stimulation experienced by the female in the 
presence of the more attractive male. As 
pointed out by Hirn (as cited below, 201), 
this is not an essential difference for biology, 
but it is for the theory which finds the origin 
of art in this relation of the sexes. It has been 
argued by Hirn and Groos (and suggested by 
Guyau) that the native coyness of the female 
is correlative to the attractiveness of the male, 
and sexual selection operates largely by the 
overcoming of this native coyness. 
Literature : that of Evolution (q. v.), 
notably Darwin, Wallace, and the general 
expositions of Conn and Headley. See 
also Groos, Play of Animals (Eng. trans.) ; 
Hirn, Origins of Art, chap, xiv (reproducing 
an earlier Swedish work). (j.m.b., e.b.p.) 
Sexual Sensation : Ger. Sexualem2flnd- 
ung ; Fr. sensation sexuelle ; It. sensazione 
sessuale. The Organic Sensation (q. v.) of 
Sex (q. v.). (j.m.b.) 
Shaftesbury, Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 
third Earl of. (1671-1713.) Born in 
London, and educated under the supervision 
of Locke. He entered Parliament, 1693; 
lived in Holland, 1698-9; succeeded to the 
peerage, 1699 ; retired from public life upon 
the death of William III. He was one of 
the group of ‘ English moral philosophers ’ ; 
see Ethical Theories (i), (c). 
Shamanism [Pers. and Hindu Shaman, 
idolater] : Ger. Schamanismus ; Fr. cha¬ 
manisme ; Ital. sciamanismo. The belief en¬ 
tertained by some North Asiatic and American 
tribes that the fortunes of life are chiefly deter¬ 
mined by a group of inferior deities or spirits, 
who are for the most part evilly disposed, and 
whose worship is incantation. 
The tribes in question believe in a supreme 
deity who is good. But they believe also that 
a class of inferior and malevolent spirits so 
dominate the lower world that man is largely 
at their mercy. The religious worship is 
therefore devised with reference to these evil 
spirits or devils, and consists in attempts to 
appease and propitiate them by means of 
spells and incantations. 
Literature : Tylor, Primitive Culture 
(1877); Gardner, Faiths of the World; 
Sommier-Stebhen, In Siberia. (a.t.o.) 
Shame [ME. shamen] : Ger. Scham ; Fr. 
jmdeur (physical) ; Ital. vergogna. 


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