Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Dictionary of philosophy and psychology including many of the principal conceptions of ethics, logics, aesthetics ... and giving a terminology in English, French, German and Italian, vol. 2 [lead-zwing]
Baldwin, James Mark
still but the way to the latter. The cause 
whereof is that the object of man’s desire is 
not to enjoy once only and for one instant 
of time, but to assure for ever the way 
of his future desire ’ (.Leviathan, chap. xi). 
Cf. Mill’s distinction between happiness and 
contentment ( Utilitarianism, chap. ii). The 
term is also sometimes used as equivalent to 
pleasure, or the constituent element of happi¬ 
ness. Shaftesbury, e. g., speaks of ‘ pleasures 
or satisfactions ’ (.Inquiry concerning Virtue, 
Bk. II. Pt. II. § i). Green and other Neo- 
Hegelians use the term ‘ self-satisfaction,’ 
as well as ‘ self-realization,’ to characterize 
the good—holding that the self is satisfied 
only by being realized. Gf. Green, Prole¬ 
gomena to Ethics, Bk. III. chap, i, and 
Spinoza, Ethica, Pt. IV. prop. 52. (j.s.) 
Satisfaction (aesthetic). (1) Satisfac¬ 
tion (q.v.) in what is aesthetic. 
(2) The term is specially connected with 
the principle of the ‘ satisfaction of expectan¬ 
cies,’ in accordance with which an aesthetic 
content will be so constituted that its vai’ious 
parts lead naturally up to one another, as if in 
response to a definitely formulated expecta¬ 
This phrase is Marshall’s, who follows 
closely after Bergmann in his development of 
the idea borrowed from Schiller in connection 
with beauty of form. 
Literature : Bergmann, lieber das Schöne 
(1887); Marshall, Aesth. Princ. (1895). 
Saturation [Lat. saturare, to fill] : Ger. 
Sättigung ; Fr, saturation ; Ital. saturazione. 
The correlative term to purity of colour ; the 
relative deficiency in black-white admixture 
in any colour sensation. (c.l.f.) 
It is the third determinant of the total 
colour impression, besides colour tone and 
brightness. It is sometimes spoken of as the 
colour intensity of the ‘ colour.’ Cf. Visual 
Sensation under Vision, and Brightness. 
Satyriasis : see Nymphomania. 
Savage [Lat. silvaticus, belonging to a 
wood, through Fr.] : Ger. (der) Wilde; Fr. 
sauvage ; Ital. selvaggio (man), selvatico (ani¬ 
mals)—(e.m.) Pertaining to the lowest condi¬ 
tion of normal human development. 
Owing to the various connotations of a 
derogatory character which attach to the 
word savage, the term ‘ primitive man ’ is 
preferred by many writers ; this includes as 
well the prehistoric races whose status must 
be inferred from their relics, as well as the 
crudely organized tribes visited by modern 
Owing to the essential differences of 
habitat, race, endowment, &c., it is impos¬ 
sible to describe any group of mental qualities 
or of industrial and social status as character¬ 
istic of savages; but it may be said that 
their implements and industries are simple 
adaptations of natural materials; that the 
search for food, or the warfare with neigh¬ 
bouring tribes, occupies a prominent part of 
their occupation ; that their moral and reli¬ 
gious life is largely built up on animistic con¬ 
ceptions of the forces of nature; that their 
mental life is limited and monotonous, and 
their social organization crude and often 
conditioned by nomadic habits. It has been 
customary in comparative psychology to com¬ 
pare mental characteristics in the child with 
those of savages ; the analogy is suggestive, 
but the difference in physical development 
between the two must not be lost sight of. 
It has been customary to contrast savagery 
with barbarism, and these with civilization. 
However useful in current speech, these 
distinctions of large and variable culture 
stages are too indefinite to be scientifically 
precise. Cf. Culture, Race, and Anthropo¬ 
logy. (j.j.) 
Savart’s Wheel : see Laboratory and 
Apparatus, III, B, (b), (4). 
Saving Faith : see Faith for equivalents 
of that term. In Christian theology, that 
act on the part of the repentant sinner 
by means of which or in which the atoning 
grace of Jesus Christ is secured and appro¬ 
priated and the sinner justified before God. 
Cf. Faith. (a.t.o.) 
Saviour [Lat. salvator, from salvare, to 
deliver] : Ger. Heiland ; Fr. Sauveur ; Ital. 
Salvatore. One who delivers or provides 
a way of deliverance from the evils and 
imperfections of the present existence. 
In the broad sense, Zoroaster, Buddha, 
Mohammed were saviours, inasmuch as they 
were the authors of schemes of deliverance 
from the evils of life. But none of these 
claim to save by his own power. They 
either profess to be prophets of God, like 
Mohammed, or, like Buddha, point out the 
way which men must realize in their own 
strength. In Christianity, on the contrary, the 
Saviour also professes to be divine and to save 
by his own power ; the Christ of Christianity 
not only points out the way, but promises 
divine help and grace in its realization, (a.t.o.) 
Scent (or Odour) [Lat. sentire, to per-


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