Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Dictionary of philosophy and psychology including many of the principal conceptions of ethics, logics, aesthetics ... and giving a terminology in English, French, German and Italian, vol. 2 [lead-zwing]
Baldwin, James Mark
there results a peculiar instability of impres¬ 
sion, an irregular alternation of colours or 
figures in the combined field, which is known 
as * retinal rivalry.’ Cf. Colour Mixture 
(binocular). The phenomenon has been ex¬ 
plained in terms of attention (Helmholtz) 
and in purely physiological terms (Hering). 
Literature : Helmholtz, Physiol. Optik 
(2nd ed.), 916, 924; Hering, in Hermanns 
Handb. d. Physiol., III. i. 380-5; Beitr. z. 
Physiol., 308 ff. ; H. Parinaud, in Ann. 
d’Ocul., cxix (1897). (e.b.t.) 
Retribution [Lat. retributio, from rétri¬ 
buer e, to repay] : Ger. Vergeltung ; Fr. rétri¬ 
bution ; Ital. retribuzione. The reward or 
punishment which awaits the soul in the 
future state of existence on account of the 
merit or demerit of the present life. In 
Christian theology, the future punishment of 
those who reject the offer of salvation and 
die impenitent. 
The notion of retribution in the general 
sense is prominent in the religious thought 
of both East and West. The idea is usually 
associated with the process of transmigration 
through which the soul works out its destiny. 
The principle of retribution in Hindu thought 
is Karma, which is the very soul of trans¬ 
migration itself. The Christian scheme is 
unfavourable to the notion of transmigration, 
and the tendency is to regard retribution in 
the light of finality. There are bodies of 
Christians, however, who hold to limited 
retribution and the final salvation of all men. 
Literature : see Karma, Punishment, 
Transmigration, and Universalism. (a.t.o.) 
Retrospection and Retrospective Re¬ 
ference : see Origin versus Nature. 
Return (economic) [Làt. re + tornare, to 
turn]: Ger .Ertrag) Fr. produit) Ital. risul- 
tato, prodotto. Price considered as a function 
of the form : cost + net profit. 
Return would ordinarily be measured in 
the form of total price received, rather than 
of price per unit of product. 
Any productive process begins with the 
consumption in one form or another of a 
certain amount of capital, and ends with the 
production of an uncertain amount of new 
wealth. From the private standpoint, the 
capital consumed or invested represents an 
expense, and the resulting wealth sold takes 
the form of a money return. From the public 
standpoint, the amount of capital consumed is 
properly measured as waste, and the wealth 
produced takes the form of a return in means 
of public enjoyment which may more than 
replace the original amount wasted or sunk 
in the process. (a.t.h.) 
Reuchlin, Johann. (1455-1522.) Edu¬ 
cated in the chapel of the margrave of Baden, 
and at Paris and Orleans (law). Lectured on 
jurisprudence and belles-lettres at Ttibingen, 
1481, receiving the title of imperial councillor 
from the emperor ; lived at the court of the 
elector palatine of Heidelberg, 1492-6; went 
to Rome, 1498, and became president of the 
Swabian confederate tribunal upon his return; 
professor at Ingolstadt, 1520. 
Revelation (in theology) [Lat. revelatio, 
from revelare, to reveal] : Ger. Offenbarung ; 
Fr. révélation ; Ital. rivelazione. Any self¬ 
manifestation of the deity through natural or 
supernatural agencies. Especially : the com¬ 
munication of the divine thought or will 
through inspired human agencies ; also the 
subject-matter thus communicated. 
All religions presuppose some method of 
communicating the divine will to man. The 
term revelation acquires a specific import, 
however, in connection with the documents 
of religion. The sacred scriptures of any 
religion are the inspired basis of its doctrine 
and claims, and the question of the nature 
and import of revelation becomes one of great 
moment. In general it may be said that our 
estimate of revelation will depend upon our 
theory of inspiration. 
Literature : see Inspiration ; Lücke, 
Versuch einer vollständigen Einleitung in die 
Offenbarung (2nd ed., 1852) ; also the various 
New Testament Introductions. (a.t.o.) 
Revenge [Lat. re + vindicare, to claim, 
through Fr.] : Ger. Rache ; Fr. vengeance ; 
Ital. vendetta. The emotion whose impulse 
prompts to return ill for ill : applied also to 
the ill which is returned. 
Revenge has close affiliation with the other 
destructive emotions—anger, hate, malice. 
Its differentia seems to be the sense of owed 
and deserved ill to which the wrongdoer has 
made himself liable. It has a more organic 
instinctive form in the animals. In primitive 
societies it is not only measure for measure, 
but kind for kind—‘ an eye for an eye and a 
tooth for a tooth,’ as well as ‘a life for a life.’ 
It is often made the germ from which social 
and statutory Justice (q. v.) develops. The 
returning of good for good has no corre¬ 
spondingly urgent emotion, the feeling of 
gratitude being a tame and colourless affair 
compared with that of revenge. It illustrates 
—what is to be noted in other instances— 
that the unpleasant emotional states and 


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