Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Titel:
Dictionary of philosophy and psychology including many of the principal conceptions of ethics, logics, aesthetics ... and giving a terminology in English, French, German and Italian, vol. 2 [lead-zwing]
Person:
Baldwin, James Mark
PURL:
https://digitalesammlungen.uni-weimar.de/viewer/image/lit29448/434/
QUANTITY — QUINQUE VOCES 
(5) The quantity of a proposition is that 
respect in which a universal proposition is 
regarded as asserting more than the corre¬ 
sponding particular proposition : the recog¬ 
nized quantities are Universal, Particular, 
Singular (see those terms, in logic), and— 
opposed to these as £ definite ’—Indefinite. 
Quantitas is used in this sense by Apuleius. 
Quantification of the Predicate. The attach¬ 
ment of signs of propositional quantity to the 
predicates of simple propositions is called by 
this name. The dictum de omni defines the 
relation of subject and predicate, so that ‘ Any 
A is B ’ is to be understood as meaning ‘ To 
whatever A is applicable, B is applicable.’ 
But this definition must be modified, in order 
to give any room for a quantification of the 
predicate. If then we are to take all and 
some in their proper distributive senses and 
not in collective senses, to say that£ Every man 
is every animal’ would, as Aristotle remarks, 
be absurd, unless it were meant that there was 
but one man and one animal, and that that one 
man was identical with that one animal. This 
system has never been proposed. But Hamilton, 
with his followers, T. S. Baynes and Calder- 
wood, take the marks of quantity in a collec¬ 
tive sense. They thus have, as one of the propo¬ 
sitional forms, ‘Some man is not some animal,’ 
which precisely denies £ Every man is every 
animal,’ in the distributive sense, and is 
entitled to an equal standing in logic. It 
does not deny ‘ All man is all animal,’ in the 
collective sense of these logicians. This 
system had some vogue in its day. 
De Morgan s system of Propositions. This 
permits the retention of the dictum de omni, 
merely applying propositional quality to the 
subject. We thus get the following eight 
forms of proposition : 
i )) To whatever A is applicable, B is 
applicable. 
(•) To whatever A is inapplicable, B is 
applicable. 
)•( To whatever A is applicable, B is in¬ 
applicable. 
((To whatever A is inapplicable, B is 
inapplicable; i.e. To whatever B is 
applicable, A is applicable. 
() To something to which A is applicable, 
B is applicable. 
(•( To something to which A is appli¬ 
cable, B is inapplicable. 
)•) To something to which A is inappli¬ 
cable, B is applicable; i. e. To some¬ 
thing to which B is applicable, A is 
inapplicable. 
)( To something to which A is inappli¬ 
cable, B is inapplicable. 
The above is substantially one of De 
Morgan’s own forms of statement, called by 
him onymatic. There is no objection to this 
system ; but it is an idle complication of 
forms which does not enable us to take account 
of any mode of inference that the old system 
does not cover. Still it does away with the 
figures of syllogism. But whatever the 
merits or demerits of the system, De Morgan 
developed it with logical elegance. (c.s.P.) 
Quantity (in physics). A magnitude 
which admits of precise comparison or measure¬ 
ment. Usually limited to concepts expressed 
by algebraic symbols. Cf. the other topics 
Quantity, also Value (in mathematics), (s.n.) 
Quantum [Lat.]. Determinate Quantity 
(q. v.). 
Quicunque. A designation of the Atha- 
nAsian Creed (q. v.) from its introductory 
words Quicunque vult, Whosoever will, (a.t.o.) 
Quiddity (Quid, Quod, Quo, Quem, in 
phrases) [Lat. quidditas, quid, what] : Ger. 
Quiddität ; Fr. quiddité ; Ital. quiddità. 
See Latin and Scholastic Terminology 
(4, 5)~ 
Quietism [Lat. quies, rest] : Ger. Quietis¬ 
mus', Fr. quiétisme ; Ital. quietismo. A form 
of Mysticism (q. v.) which lays emphasis 
upon the passive and receptive attitude of the 
human spirit in relation to the influx of 
the divine Spirit, and making little or nothing 
of activity in religious matters, whether 
ceremonial or moral activity, and everything 
of contemplation. 
It made the Sabbath a symbol of rest in 
God. Its aim was the absorption of the 
practical personality in God. Its chief re¬ 
presentatives are Angelus Silesius and 
Molinox. The influence of the latter, a 
Spanish priest, was considerable in the Roman 
Catholic Church. Cf. Patristic Philosophy, 
ad fin., also St. Thomas (philosophy of). 
Fénelon represented it until it was condemned 
by the pope under the influence of Bossuet. 
Madame Guyon is its chief literary representa¬ 
tive. It is somewhat akin to Pietism (q. v.) 
and to the religious philosophy of the 
Friends. (J.D.) 
Quinque voces : see Predicable. 
412
        

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