Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Dictionary of philosophy and psychology including many of the principal conceptions of ethics, logics, aesthetics ... and giving a terminology in English, French, German and Italian, vol. 2 [lead-zwing]
Baldwin, James Mark
above—see Psychology (experimental). A 
note on the history of instruction in labora¬ 
tory psychology is given under Laboratory 
and Apparatus, I. Apart from work done 
under other names, especially in medical 
schools, possibly the earliest courses in physio¬ 
logical psychology proper, with demonstra¬ 
tions of brain anatomy and physiology, were 
those of James (about 1880) at Harvard, and 
McCosh, Osborn, and Scott at Princeton 
(1883). Cf. the other topics Psychology. 
Literature : the works cited above ; Bib- 
liog. G, i, d ; see also Psychology (experi¬ 
mental). (j.m.b.) 
Psychology (rational) : see Psychology 
(empirical, &c.). 
Psychology (the new) : G er. die moderne 
Psychologie ; Fr. la psychologie nouvelle ; Ital. 
la nuova psicologia. Modem psychology, in 
its experimental and physiological aspects ; 
scientific as opposed to philosophical psycho- 
logy. So we speak of the new physiology i 
of Ludwig ; the new pathology of Virchow ; 
the new chemistry of Liebig. 
The dividing line between the old and the 
new psychology may perhaps be found in 
the psychology of Herbart, who overthrew 
the psychology of faculties, while he still held 
fast to a metaphysical basis for psychology. 
Most of the prominent living psychologists 
have been strongly influenced by the ‘ new ’ 
psychology, even if they are not primarily 
experimentalists. So Brentano, Lipps, Jodi, 
Bain, Höffding, Ladd, James, Baldwin, 
Sully, Ward, Stout, Stanley Hall, Ribot, 
Paulhan, Fouillée, Rehmke, Ardigo, Sergi, 
Morselli, &c. (e.b.t.) 
It is probable that the movement was pre¬ 
pared for by the British associationists and 
empirical thinkers, of whom J. S. Mill and 
Spencer may be especially mentioned (cf. 
Ribot, Psychol, angl. contemp.). With this 
movement note should also be made of the 
French school of mental pathologists (Charcot, 
Pierre Janet), whose methods and results are 
vitally incorporated in the body of the ‘ new ’ 
psychology. Cf. the other topics Psycho¬ 
logy. (L.M.-J.M.B.) 
Psychometry [Gr. y\rvxn, soul, + ixérpov, a 
measure]: Ger. Psychometric; Fr. psycho¬ 
metric ; Ital. psicometria. This term has been 
used as synonymous with experimental psy¬ 
chology or exact psychology. If retained at 
all, it is best confined to the department con¬ 
cerned with the measurement of the time of 
psychophysical and mental processes. See 
Reaction Time. (j.mck.c.) 
It has been taken over by a form of new 
mysticism, and had better be abandoned 
by scientific psychology. The term Psycho¬ 
metric was used by Wolff (Psychol. E?np., §522) 
for the mathematical treatment of psycho¬ 
logical processes. (j.m.b., h.c.w.) 
Fsychomotor : Ger. psychomotorisch ; Fr. 
psychomoteur ; Ital. psicomotore (-torio). Ap¬ 
plied to action considered as following upon a 
mental state. See Ideo-motor, and Sensori¬ 
motor ; and cf. Dynamogenesis. (j.m.b.) 
Fsychoneurosis : see Psycho-. 
Fsychonomic Forces. Forces (q.v., figu¬ 
rative meanings) (1) which condition mental 
development, or (2) which, being of the 
psychological order, enter into and determine 
social change. The theory of these forces con¬ 
stitutes Psychonomics (q.v., also for derivation 
and equivalents). (j.m.b.) 
Psychonomics [Gr. i/rvyi), mind, + vôpoç, 
law]: Ger. Psychonomik; Fr. psychonomique; 
Ital. psiconomia (these equivalents are sug¬ 
gested). Suggested to designate (1) that 
branch of science which investigates the rela¬ 
tion of the individual mind to its (especially 
social) environment, after analogy with Biono¬ 
mics (q. v.) and Socionomics (q. v.) ; and (2) 
that branch of Sociology (q.v.) which deals 
with the psychological factors and laws in¬ 
volved in social organization and development. 
This branch of inquiry treats, from the 
objective or sociological point of view, the data 
with which Social Psychology (q.v.) deals 
from the subjective or psychic point of 
view. (J.M.B., E.H.G.) 
Psychoparesis : see Psycho-. 
Psychopathology [Gr. soul, + nddos, 
disease]: Ger .Psychopathologie; Fr .psycho¬ 
pathologie ; Ital. psicopatologia. The general 
studyof diseased mental conditions; a synonym 
of psychiatry and abnormal psychology, but 
rather more comprehensive than either, be¬ 
cause it emphasizes the general scientific study 
of all forms of mental aberration. Its more 
precise synonym is mental Pathology (q.v.). 
See Psychosis (2). 
As compared with abnormal psychology it 
emphasizes the pathological, while the latter 
term emphasizes the psychological point of 
view ; nor does it as prominently as the latter 
term consider minor mental deviations. As 
a type of a treatise with this title see 
Emminghaus’ Allgemeine Psychopathologie. 
The term psychopathist is occasionally met 
with as synonymous with psychiatrist. Psycho¬ 
path is occasionally used, as synonymous 
with neuropath or neurotic, to indicate an 


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