Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Dictionary of philosophy and psychology including many of the principal conceptions of ethics, logics, aesthetics ... and giving a terminology in English, French, German and Italian, vol. 2 [lead-zwing]
Baldwin, James Mark
determination by pure practical reason, the 
basis of his ethics : this he calls its freedom. 
‘ The critique of practical reason generally is 
bound to prevent the empirically conditioned 
reason from claiming exclusively to furnish the 
ground of determination of the will ’ (Critique 
of Practical Reason, Introd.). (j.s.) 
Practical Religion: & er. praktische Re¬ 
ligion ; Fr. religion pratique ; Ital. religione 
pratica. That department of Pbactical 
Theology (q. v.) which has for its aim the 
upbuilding of the religious life in the com¬ 
munity and the individual. Practical re¬ 
ligion embodies itself in practical activities 
and in writings adapted to the religious needs 
of the time. (a.t.o.) 
Practical Theology : Ger. praktische 
Theologie', Fr. théologie pratique', Ital. teo- 
logia pratica. That department of theology 
which treats of the corporate life of the Church, 
in its functions of government, edification, and 
Since Schleiermacher, who raised this dis¬ 
cipline to its true dignity, practical theology 
has held a place co-ordinate with the exegetical, 
historical, and systematical branches. Of the 
three modes in which organic Christian life ex¬ 
presses itself—creed, code, and cult—practical 
theology in the broad sense would embrace 
the two latter. It includes homiletics as one 
of its departments, though the latter term is 
sometimes used as its equivalent, covering the 
subject of catechetics, liturgies, and polity. 
Literature'. Kitsch, Prakt. Theol. ; 
Bickebsteth, Christian Student’s Biblical 
Assistant. (a.t.o.) 
Practice (or Praxis) (in ethics) [Gr. 
npâÇis] : Ger. Praxis) Fr.pratique) Ital. con- 
dotta, (la) praxis. Conduct, or moral activity, 
as distinguished from the strictly intellectual 
Aristotle distinguishes practice (rrpâÇis) 
from (i) theory or science (eVto-r»^), and (2) 
production (rixvri). Unlike the former, it 
implies the presence of irrational desire, and 
consists in the regulation of the latter by 
reason; unlike the latter, it is its own end, 
and produces nothing beyond itself, i. e. it is 
Autotelic (q.v.). (j.s.) 
Practice (in psychology) : Ger. Uehung ; 
Fr. pratique ; Ital. pratica. (1) Any sort of 
activity considered as preparing for (see Pbe- 
pabation), habituating (see Habituation), 
or exercising in (see Exebcise) the function 
or functions brought into play. 
Practice applies to mind or body and 
covers the three special cases distinguished 
11. 3: 
in the definition, for each of which foreign 
equivalents are given sub verbis. 
(2) Used for repetition in general, together 
with its effects, in Keaction Time (q. v.) 
experimentation. Cf. Wundt, Physiol. Psychol. 
(4th ed.), i. 356. 
Literature : that of Fatigue (e. g. Henri, 
Année Psychol., iii), and of Be action Time 
(e. g. Angell and Moobe, Psychol. Bev., iii. 
1896, 245 ; Buccola, Legge del tempo, 1883, 
chap. vi). See also Play (especially the 
‘ practice theory ’ as developed by Gboos, 
Play of Animals, Eng. trans.). (j.m.b., g.e.s.) 
Practice Theory (of play) : see Play. 
Pragmatic (1) and (2) Pragmatism 
[Gr. 7TpaypariKos, versed in affairs] : Ger. prag¬ 
matisch, Pragmatismus ; Fr. pragmatique, 
pragmatisme ; Ital. prammatico, pramma- 
tismo. (1) This term is applied by Kant 
to the species of hypothetical imperative 
which he otherwise denominates ‘counsel of 
prudence,’ and characterizes as ‘ assertorial,’ 
those, namely, which prescribe the means 
necessary to the attainment of happiness, an 
end which we may postulate for all sentient 
beings (Grundlegung z. Met. d. Sitten, ed. 
Bosenkranz, 42; Eng. trans., Abbott, 34). (j.s.) 
Pragmatic anthropology, according to Kant, 
is practical ethics. 
Pragmatic horizon is the adaptation of our 
general knowledge to influencing our morals. 
(2) The opinion that metaphysics is to be 
largely cleared up by the application of the 
following maxim for attaining clearness of 
apprehension : ‘ Consider what effects, that 
might conceivably have practical bearings, 
we conceive the object of our conception 
to have. Then, our conception of these 
effects is the whole of our conception of the 
object.’ (c.s.p.) 
The doctrine that the whole ‘ meaning ’ 
of a conception expresses itself in prac¬ 
tical consequences, consequences either in 
the shape of conduct to be recommended, or 
in that of experiences to be expected, if 
the conception be true ; which consequences 
would be different if it were untrue, and 
must be different from the consequences by 
which the meaning of other conceptions is in 
turn expressed. If a second conception should 
not appear to have other consequences, then 
it must really be only the first conception 
under a different name. In methodology it 
is certain that to trace and compare their 
respective consequences is an admirable way 
of establishing the differing meanings of 
different conceptions. (w.J.) 


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