Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Dictionary of philosophy and psychology including many of the principal conceptions of ethics, logics, aesthetics ... and giving a terminology in English, French, German and Italian, vol. 2 [lead-zwing]
Baldwin, James Mark
This term as defined above is used by 
Münsterberg (Psychol. and Life), and trans¬ 
lates the German überindividuell. (j.m.b.) 
Overproduction (in biology) : see Excess, 
and Prodigality oe Nature. 
Overproduction (in economics) : Ger. 
UeberproduJction ; Fr. excès de ïoffre (or de 
production) ; Ital. eccesso di produzione. A 
continuance of supply at prices which are not 
remunerative to the producer. 
"When there are large investments of fixed 
capital, it may involve a worse loss to stop 
work than to go on at a disadvantage ; and 
in these cases overproduction may continue 
for a long period. 
It is argued by most writers that what is 
called overproduction is really disproportionate 
production. It is not that we have too much 
of some things, but too few of others to ex¬ 
change for them. But an application of the 
theory of utility shows the error of this view. 
It is conceivable that products of a certain 
kind should be so multiplied that their 
utility would be less than their cost. For 
overproduction, be it observed, does not mean 
that more goods are produced than people 
can consume, but more than they are will¬ 
ing to pay for. 
In practice, the cause of what is known as 
general overproduction is a scarcity of means 
of payment, due to a contraction of ci’edit, or 
to a commercial crisis. (a.t.h.) 
Oversoul : Ger. Ueberseele ; Fr. (no exact 
equivalent—Th.e.) ; Ital. (not in use). A term 
used by Emerson to express the Absolute 
Unity, in which subject and object, the 
knowing and the known, are one ; the total 
reality in which are included all parts of the 
universe, and all our partial, successive 
thoughts and acts. It connotes this absolute 
reality particularly as the source of all that 
is most universal and valuable in the ex¬ 
perience of man : genius in his intellect, 
virtue in his will, and love in his emotions. 
See Emerson, Essays, ‘ Oversoul.’ (j.d.) 
Overtone : Ger. Oberton ; Fr. harmo¬ 
nique, ton supérieur ; Ital. armonica, tono 
armonico. The upper partial tones of a Com¬ 
pound Tone (q. v.), i. e. those whose pitch is 
higher than the pitch of the fundamental. See 
Literature: Helmholtz, Sensations of Tone, 
2 5 ; Saneokd, Course in Exper. Psychol., 
expts. 87-9. (E.B.T.) 
Ovum [Lat. ovum, an egg] : Ger. Ei ; Fr. 
œuf ovule, ovum ; Ital. uovo, ovo. The 
female sexual product or element. 
The term is applied in four different senses, 
(1) to the ovarian cell or immature ovum, out 
of which the female product or mature ovum 
is developed ; (2) to the mature ovum, or true 
female spore ; (3) to the mature ovum plus the 
fecundating spermatozoon uniting with it— 
that is, to the impregnated ovum; (4)to various 
stages of the developing embryo. Cf. Polak 
Body, Fertilization, Cleavage, Embeyo, 
Hetebolecithal, and Homolecithal. 
Literature : Minot, Human Embryol., 48 ; 
E. B. Wilson, The Cell; Y. Delage, Struc¬ 
ture du Protoplasma (1895); F. M. Baleour, 
Compar. Embryol. (1881). (c.s.M.) 
Oxford Movement : see Tractaeian- 
Oxy- [Gr. 6 £vs, sharp] : Ger. Oxy- ; Fr. 
oxy- ; Ital. ossi- or oxi-. Abnormally acute 
or sharp ; as oxyaesthesia, abnormally acute 
sensibility (occurs in hysteria) ; oxygeusia, 
an unusual acuteness of taste. (j.j.) 


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