Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Dictionary of philosophy and psychology including many of the principal conceptions of ethics, logics, aesthetics ... and giving a terminology in English, French, German and Italian, vol. 2 [lead-zwing]
Baldwin, James Mark
1894) ; Renouf, as far as chap, cxxxiii, Proc. 
Soc. Bib. Archaeol.(London, 1893-7); Budge, 
Papyrus of Ani (London, 1895), and Book of 
the Dead (London, 1898). Pyramid texts: 
Maspeko, Recueil. Other texts in Rec. 
of the Past, ist and 2nd series. Early pro¬ 
verbial wisdom: Virey, Et. sur le Papyrus 
Prisse, Le Livre de Kaqimna, et Les Leçons 
de Ptah-hotep (Paris, 1887). General works: 
De Rougé, Essays in the Rev. Archéol., 
N.S., i; Tiele, Hist, of Egyptian Religion 
(Dutch, trans. by Ballingal, London, 1882); 
cf. Tiele-Gehrich, Gesch. d. Religion im 
Alterthum, i. (1895), 17-124 ; Renouf, Hib- 
bert Lectures (London, 1882); Pierret, Le 
Panthéon Égyptien (Paris, 1881); Brugsch, 
Religion u. Mythol. d. alten Aegypter (Leip¬ 
zig, 1884-90); von Strauss and Torney, 
D. altägyptische Götterglaube (2 vols., Heidel¬ 
berg, 1889-90); Maspero, numerous articles 
in the Rev. de FHist. des Religions (1880 ff.), 
some reprinted in the Ét. de Mythol. et 
d’Archéol. Égyptienne (2 vols., Paris, 1893; 
criticizes Brugsch) ; Wiedemann, Religion of 
the Ancient Egyptians (London, 1897). A 
shorter treatment will be found in Meyer’s 
Gesch. Egyptens (Berlin, 1887); Erman’s 
Life in Ancient Egypt (London, 1894); or 
Maspero’s Dawn of Civilization (London, 
1894); Chantepie de la Saussaye, Lehrb. 
d. Religionsgesch. (1897), i. 88-160 ; Petrie, 
Religion and Conscience in Ancient Egypt 
(London, 1898). 
II. Babylonio-Assyria. The study of 
the ancient civilization of Mesopotamia has 
shown its immense significance for the culture 
of the Mediterranean peoples. It touched 
Egypt, it spread through Canaan, it power¬ 
fully influenced Israel. It contributed to the 
mythology and possibly to some of the cults 
of Greece ; and through the Greeks its primi¬ 
tive science—for instance, the signs of the 
zodiac—passed into Europe. It supplied 
much of the demonology of Judaism, and it 
is possible that some of its cosmic conceptions 
may have left their traces in Gnosticism. But 
it can hardly be ranked with Egypt as a mother 
of philosophies. 
When the Babylonian religion comes into 
view in the fourth millennium B.C., numerous 
centres of government and of worship have 
been established in North and South Baby¬ 
lonia, and various elements of nationality 
have been already combined. The relation of 
the Semitic immigrant peoples to the previous 
occupants of the country is still obscure, and 
the chronological problems arising out of the 
attempts to determine the successions of kings 
are differently settled by different investiga¬ 
tors. Concerning Sargon and Naram Sin of 
Agane, about 3800 b.c., there is general agree¬ 
ment ; but whether the priest-kings of Lagash, 
among whom Gudea figures, preceded or fol¬ 
lowed Sargon is still under debate. The 
religion of this age is already developed, and 
shows traces of the beginnings of organiza¬ 
tion. But it has not passed beyond the 
character of polytheistic nature-religion. The 
deities are revealed in the elemental forces : 
the moon, the sun, the stars, the courses of 
the seasons, the three great divisions of the 
universe—the sky, the earth, and the primaeval 
waters which surround and bear it up—these 
are the chief objects of interest, the embodi¬ 
ments of divine powers. At the bottom are 
magic and witchcraft, an immense multitude 
of spirits, evil and good. Babylonio-Assyrian 
religion does not descend as low as Egyptian 
animal worship; on the other hand, its doc¬ 
trine of man and his destiny remains much 
nearer the animistic level, the condition of 
the wandering double (ekimmu) on earth 
resembling that of the usual disembodied 
ghost, and the gloomy underworld having 
no proper ethical character. Such philo¬ 
sophical interest as Mesopotamian religion 
presents seems rather to lie in its occasional 
efforts to rise above the fundamental poly- 
daemonism and the polytheism superposed 
upon it. The term for a god, il-u, is identi¬ 
cal with the widespread Semitic name which 
appears in Hebrew as el, but its derivation 
is still matter of discussion. A regular 
feminine was formed, which does not occur in 
Hebrew, and similarly an abstract ilüt-u, god¬ 
head or divinity, with which may be compared 
anüt-u, a corresponding abstract from the 
name Anu, the sky-god (Jeremias). 
Anu appears already in the inscriptions of 
Gudea, forming the first member of a supreme 
triad. He represents the expanse of heaven. 
Beside him stand Bel, lord of the earth and 
its forces, and Ea, god of the ocean-deep, 
which encompasses the earth and lies beneath 
it. Theological arrangement here begins to 
be apparent. But though Anu is the supreme 
lord of all, and the father of the gods, who 
must obey his commands, he himself takes no 
leading part, and in the cosmogony mentioned 
below he is removed by several stages from 
the actual origin of the world of the gods. 
Another triad comprised the moon-god Sin, 
who could even be identified with Anu, the 
sun-god Shamash, and Ishtar (Venus) or 


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