Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Dictionary of philosophy and psychology including many of the principal conceptions of ethics, logics, aesthetics ... and giving a terminology in English, French, German and Italian, vol. 2 [lead-zwing]
Baldwin, James Mark
Reading, in Nineteenth Cent., xx. 867 ; 
Forum, xi. 192; Pop. Sei. Mo., x. 459, xxi. 
634 (Beard) ; Annual Encyc. (1887), 506. (j.j.) 
On ‘ Pikmanism ’ or ‘ Cumberlandism ’ see 
articles by Morselli, Tamburini,Guicciardi, 
and Ferrari, in Riv. Sperim. di Freniat. 
(1891-9). See also Ottolenghi, La Sug- 
gestione e la Facoltà psichiche occulte (1900), 
9 5—139 ; Beard, The Study of Trance, 
Muscle Reading, &c. (New York, 1882) ; Tar- 
chanofe, Gedankenlesen (1895). (e.m.) 
Muscle-sense and Muscle-sense Illu¬ 
sions : see Muscular Sensation, and Illu¬ 
sions oe Motion and Movement, II. 
Muscular (or Muscle) Sensation : Ger. 
Muskelempfindung ; Fr. sensation musculaire ; 
Ital. sensazione muscolare. The phrase is 
used, loosely and vaguely, for (1) the complex 
of sensations arising from skin, joint, muscle, 
and tendon in such perceptions as those of 
resistance, of movement, and of lifted weight. 
It is thus the equivalent of Bastian’s Kinaes- 
thetic Sensation (q. v.). ; and for (2) a 
sensation of dull and diffused character ob¬ 
tained (after elimination of other sense-quali¬ 
ties) by stimulation of a striped muscle ; 
localized, like articular sensation, within the 
stimulated limb. (e.b.t.-j.m.b.) 
(3) A sensation of muscular fatigue which 
follows long-continued stimulation of a muscle, 
either voluntary (indirect) or non-voluntary 
(direct : electrical, chemical, &c.). 
It is probable that muscular fatigue is a 
congeries of mixed qualities of the preceding 
sorts, (1) and (2). The question of its central 
or peripheral seat is now about settled in 
favour of the kinaesthetic view. Mosso and 
Waller have shown that intellectual work 
induces muscular fatigue. (j.m.b.) 
Literature : The recognition of a distinct 
muscle sense appears to go back to Aristotle 
(Hist. An., i. 4 ; De Part. An., ii.j, 10; De 
Anima, ii. 11). It certainly goes back to 
Scaliger (De Subtil., 1557). Cf. Hamil¬ 
ton, ed. of Reid (1880), 867. The modern 
doctrine of the muscle sense may be said to 
begin with Sir Ch. Bell. An excellent résumé 
to 1898 is by Henri (Année Psychol., v. 1899), 
who (cf. also Joteyko, ibid., on muscular 
fatigue) traces the subject back to Descartes. 
Henri gives abibliography of 391 titles. Külpe, 
Outlines of Psychol., 143 ; Goldscheider, 
Du Bois-Reymond’s Arch. (1889), 369, 540, 
and Suppl.-Bd. ; Bastian, Brain as Organ of 
Mind, 691 ; Sanford, Course in Exper. 
Psychol., expt. 26 ; Fullerton and Oattell, 
Perc. of Small Differences (1892); Beaunis, 
Les Sensations internes ; E. Gley, Rev. 
Philos. (Dec., 1889); L. Moulder, Expéri¬ 
ences sur le Sens musculaire, Rev. Philos. 
(April, 1887); Morselli, Semej. malat. ment., 
ii (1895); E. Claparède, Du Sens muscu¬ 
laire. See also the citations under Fatigue 
(mental). (e.b.t.-l.m.-j.m.b.) 
Music [Gr. fxnvjmfi : Ger. Musik ; Fr. 
musique ; Ital. musica. The fine art which em¬ 
ploys tones produced in rhythmic succession. 
Making rhythm the essential to music, 
complex effects are produced by added factors, 
notably melody, in which the succession is 
marked by recurring similarities, and Har¬ 
mony (q. v.), in which complex simultaneous 
tone effects are employed. 
The problems connected with music are 
principally the following. (1) The essential 
factor or factors. (2) The enhancing of the 
musical effect by the additional factors : how 
and why harmony, for example, is combined 
with melody in a musical whole. (3) The 
origin of music and its development as a fine 
art. (4) The relation of music to the other 
arts in general aesthetic theory (cf. Art and 
Art Theories, and Classification of the fine 
arts). (5) The nature of musical enjoyment ; 
its emotional and other psychological elements. 
The origin of music has been found by some 
in association with the early dance, the latter 
being held to have supplied the element of 
rhythm to which rude instruments beat the 
accompaniment. Others connect music with 
spontaneous cries, particularly those of the 
mating season. The song of birds is the best 
illustration of the employment of successive 
notes for the purposes of instinctive expres¬ 
As to the * meaning ’ or ‘ expression ’ con¬ 
veyed by music, the two current views are 
widely apart. Some hold—and possibly the 
best psychological opinion is with this view— 
that the musical effect is purely a sensuous 
one ; when, however, the sensuous ingredients 
of higher emotional and sentimental states 
are aroused through this connection, the 
music itself is considered to expi’ess or £ mean ’ 
the emotion or sentiment. General moods 
and dispositions are, no doubt, ministered to 
by music, through differences of rhythm, &c., 
and so come to be expressive to the hearer, of 
what he already finds in himself. The other 
theory—held principally by musicians, who 
are certainly entitled to an opinion—maintains 
that music is expressive of emotions and 
thoughts ; indeed, that a musical composition 
is analogous to a drama in the unfolding and 


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