Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Dictionary of philosophy and psychology including many of the principal conceptions of ethics, logics, aesthetics ... and giving a terminology in English, French, German and Italian, vol. 1 [a-laws]
Baldwin, James Mark
Peripatetics). (3) Of Ceos (cir. 230 b.c.). 
Succeeded Lycou as head, or scholarch, of the 
Peripatetic school. (4) Of Chios (cir. 275 b.c.). 
Surnamed the Siren for his eloquence. A 
Stoic, disciple of Zeno, who opened a school 
at Athens and lectured on ethics. He differed 
from Zeno. He despised logic, rejected natural 
philosophy, and regarded indifference to every¬ 
thing except virtue and vice as the highest 
good, and a clear, well-informed, healthy habit 
of mind as the only virtue. 
Aristotelian Logic : see Formal Logic. 
Aristotle. (384-22 b.c.) In point of 
intellect alone, probably the most remarkable 
of men. His father, Nicomachus, was a phy¬ 
sician. Left an orphan early, he was placed 
under a guardian, Proxenus, who had him care¬ 
fully educated. At seventeen, according to the 
best account, he visited Athens, and, when Plato 
returned from Sicily, joined the latter’s school. 
He remained in Athens twenty years. He did 
not fully agree with his master in opinions. 
Married Pythias, the daughter (by adoption) 
of Hermias, prince of Atarneus in Asia 
Minor. Upon the assassination of the prince, 
he fled with his wife to Mitylene for two years. 
Became the tutor of King Philip’s son, Alex¬ 
ander. Aristotle opened a school in Athens 
called the Lyceum. Accused of impiety he 
withdrew to Chalcis in Euboea, where he died. 
He wrote on all the sciences of his time and 
created new ones. The frequent mention of 
his name in the main articles of this or of 
any philosophical or scientific dictionary 
shows his extraordinary influence upon human 
thought. Cf. the topics following. 
Aristotle’s Dictum : Ger. dictum de omni 
et nullo (Lat. form) ; Fr. (Lat. form) ; Ital. 
(Lat. form). The so-called Dictum de Omni et 
Nullo, the general axiom of categorical syllo¬ 
gism : ‘ Quidquid dicitur Universum de aliquo 
subiecto, affirmatur de quovis contento sub illo, 
quidquid negatur de aliquo universaliter ac¬ 
cepte negatur de omnibus de quibus illud 
alterum affirmatur,’ is rightly assigned to 
Aristotle, though his enunciation of it (1 b, 
10-15 ; 24 b, 26-30) gives less prominence to 
the aspect of extension than do the ordinary 
scholastic formulas. 
Explicit recognition of the Dictum as the 
general principle of syllogism occurs first in 
Boethius (see Prantl, Gesch. d. Logik, i. 652, 
Literature : On the relation of the Dictum 
to other axioms of syllogism, Hamilton, 
Logic, ii. App. YI ; Mill, Logic, Bk. I. chap, 
ii ; Lotze, Logik, § 97 f. (r.a.) 
Aristotle’s Experiment : Ger. Versuch 
von Aristoteles ; Fr. experience d’Aristote ; 
Ital. experimento d’Aristotile. The second 
finger of either hand is crossed over the first, 
in such a way that its tip is brought upon the 
thumb-side of the latter. A marble or other 
round object is inserted between the crossed 
tips : the single marble is ‘ felt ’ as two objects. 
Sometimes, if the subject is eye-minded, only 
one object is ‘ felt,’ despite the fact that two 
sensitive surfaces are affected which, under 
ordinary circumstances, can be affected only 
by two distinct objects. The illusion is 
assisted by slight movement of the finger¬ 
Literature : Sanford, Course in Exper. 
Psychol., expt. 3 ; Rivers, Mind (1894), 583 ; 
Henri, Raumw. d. Tastsinnes, and Année 
Psychol., iii. 225 f. (1898); Aristotle, On 
Dreams (De Insomniis), chap. ii. (e.b.t.) 
Aristotle’s Terminology : see Greek 
Terminology, passim. 
Aristoxenus of Tarentum. Lived about 
330 b.c. A Greek philosopher, pupil of Ari¬ 
stotle. He wrote many works, nearly all of 
which are lost. 
Arithmetical Mean : see Mean. 
Arithmomania [Gk. àpidp-os, number, + 
pavia, madness] : Ger. Arithmomanie ; Fr. 
arithmomanie ; Ital. aritmomania. A marked 
or morbid tendency to count or keep tally, or 
to be anxious about and speculate in numeri¬ 
cal relations. Cf. Mania. t (j.j.) 
Literature : H. Saury, Etude clinique sur 
la folie héréditaire (1886); Y. Magnan, 
Recherches sur les centres nerveux, 2e série ; 
and Leç. clin, sur les mal. ment. (1893); Le¬ 
grain, Délire chez les dégénérés (1886). (l.m.) 
Arius. (cir. 250-336 a.d.) The founder 
of Arianism (q.v.). Ordained deacon by the 
patriarch Peter, and promoted to the highest 
rank among the clergy by Alexander, he was 
exiled to Illyricum, after the Council of Nicaea 
(or Nice), by Constantine. The sentence 
was revoked after two or three years, and he 
would have been restored to communion, after 
avowing his submission to the creed adopted 
by the Council, had he not suddenly died. 
Arius left several valuable theological discus¬ 
sions and treatises. 
Arminianism: Ger. Arminianismus ; Fr. 
Arminianisme ; Ital. Arminianismo. The 
most celebrated form of the reaction against 
the extreme or supralapsarian interpretation 
of the Calvinistic dogma of predestination. 
So called from its originator, Jacobus Armi- 
nius (q.v.) of Leyden (1560-1609). 


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