Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Dictionary of philosophy and psychology including many of the principal conceptions of ethics, logics, aesthetics ... and giving a terminology in English, French, German and Italian, vol. 1 [a-laws]
Baldwin, James Mark
Elizabeth) are borrowed from the ‘dialect’ 
of the nursery. 
(3) In like manner it may happen that 
after a sound-law has completed its action, a 
sound which would have been subject to its 
action comes into existence through some 
other law ; thus in Attic-Ionic ä becomes e, as 
tim for rt/iff, but näcrä keeps its 5, being for 
(4) One law may be crossed by another : 
thus Indo-European t becomes Teutonic th, 
as Lat. très, Eng. three ; but ht becomes ht, as 
Lat. octo, Eng. eight. 
(5) Different positions of words in the 
sentence, especially with reference to the 
sentence-accent, may expose them to different 
laws of change ; thus, Eng. an and one are 
both resultants of Old Eng. an, but the 
former as proclitic submitted to shortening. 
(6) The action of analogy, which has been 
already discussed, is a potent means of obscur¬ 
ing the results of the phonetic laws. Thus, 
s is dropped in cherry for cherrys (Fr. cerise), 
but not through the action of a phonetic law ; 
it is the result of the analogy, as trees, tree ; 
cherrys (conceived as plural), cherry ; effigies, 
effigy ; pease (Fr. pois), pea ; Chinese, chinee ; 
chaise, shay, &c. 
In the last analysis, sound-changes must be 
found to originate in individual inaccuracies 
of pronunciation. Only when these become 
frequent enough, or for any reason potent 
enough, to influence the community does a 
phonetic tendency develop capable of formu¬ 
lating a ‘ law.’ One individual has of course 
more influence in establishing a tendency 
than another, so one class than another. 
What should determine the inception of a 
tendency, or what should make a certain indi¬ 
vidual accuracy or aberration in reproduction 
so acceptable as to give it currency, must in 
most cases evade observation. Attempts to 
connect these tendencies with influence of 
climate, &c., have usually proved failures so 
soon as any considerable range of facts is 
taken into account. The point of view most 
hopeful of result is that which finds in race- 
mixture and bilingualism the initial impulse 
towards change. A language forced outside 
its frontiers by conquest or intercourse always 
suffers thereby, for the people which adopts a 
stranger tongue, whether as a substitute or as 
a colleague of its own, will surely speak the 
language with phonetic as well as syntactical 
colourings of its own. Syntactical solecisms, 
like Swiss es macht warm (il fait chaud) or 
Alsatian French il a frappé (geschlagen) 
dix heures, are common in the bilingual 
communities near the great speech frontiers. 
It is furthermore notably the case that in 
such communities the common man speaks 
both the current languages in one and the 
same general phonetic mould, so that the 
distinct acoustical character of each is seriously 
impaired. It has furthermore been noted that 
dialectal differentiations in languages may 
often be explained as marking the persistent 
influence of displaced languages ; thus the 
dialects of Italian may be connected with the 
influence of the pre-Latin languages of Italy 
(cf. Ascoli, ‘ Ueber die ethnologischen Gründe 
der Umgestaltung der Sprachen,’ Verh. d. 
Berl. Orient. Congr., II). The second muta¬ 
tion of consonants which gave to the High 
German group its distinctive character had 
its origin on the extreme southern frontier 
of German speech, and sweeping northward, 
gradually lost its vigour as it departed from 
its source. The law by which ü became au 
in like manner began its action at the extreme 
east in Austria, and swept westward by the 
Main valley to die out at the Rhine. In 
these, as in many other cases, phonetic change 
may be identified as a corruption spreading 
from some part of the language domain where 
the ordinary conditions of transmission are 
rudely disturbed. Similar disturbances have 
been noted in cities whose population has 
rapidly grown and developed a violent mixture 
of dialects. 
From the foregoing discussion it is apparent 
that the term law as used of phonetic uni¬ 
formity represents a different conception from 
that attaching to the term in natural sciences. 
Phonetic law deals with observed uniformities, 
and presents no basis upon which to predict 
or expect ; i. e. it is law in the sense of the 
socio-historical laws. 
The study of historical changes in the 
meaning of words constitutes a branch of 
historical grammar called sematology. These 
changes are found to be due to an interplay 
between the general and the special meanings 
of words. The general meaning of a word 
covers the range of ideas it is capable of 
evoking in the mind of hearers. The special 
meaning is that which is in the mind of the 
speaker when speaking. Special significations 
of the word ‘ tongue ’ are involved in each of 
the following : ‘ Hold your tongue ; ’ ‘ Every 
man in his own tongue ; ’ ‘ Boiled tongue ; ’ 
‘ Hitch the horses to the tongue.’ 
Change of signification implies change in 
the general signification ; this takes place by


Sehr geehrte Benutzer,

aufgrund der aktuellen Entwicklungen in der Webtechnologie, die im Goobi viewer verwendet wird, unterstützt die Software den von Ihnen verwendeten Browser nicht mehr.

Bitte benutzen Sie einen der folgenden Browser, um diese Seite korrekt darstellen zu können.

Vielen Dank für Ihr Verständnis.