Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Dictionary of philosophy and psychology including many of the principal conceptions of ethics, logics, aesthetics ... and giving a terminology in English, French, German and Italian, vol. 1 [a-laws]
Baldwin, James Mark
of thoughts preliminary to speech, logopa- 
thies; and in the associative bonds between 
thought and speech, aphasias or dysphasias 
(see Logo-, and Speech and its Detects). 
Stuttering and stammering are common 
forms of lalopathy. Likewise laloplegia has 
been used to indicate a paralysis affecting 
speech utterance. (j.j.) 
Lamarck, Jean-Baptiste Pierre An¬ 
toine de Monet, Chevalier de. (1744- 
1829.) A well-known French naturalist. He 
was the eleventh child, and intended for the 
Jesuits. Deserting them for the army, he 
was very soon named to a lieutenancy. An 
accident disqualified him for service, and he 
went to Paris to study medicine. In 1781-2 
Bufifon obtained for him an appointment as 
botanist to the king, and he travelled 
extensively in Europe. In 1788 he re¬ 
ceived a botanical appointment in the 
Jardin des Plantes, Paris, and in 1793 was 
offered a chair in zoology. Stricken soon 
afterwards with blindness, he did not cease to 
labour, and between 1815 and 1822 published 
his greatest zoological work. The devotion 
of his family, and particularly of his eldest 
daughter, redeemed these later years for 
science. See Lamarckism, and Heredity. 
Lamarckism or Lamarckianism : Ger. 
Lamarck’ische Lehre ; Fr. Lamarckisme ; Ital. 
Lamarckismo. (1) The doctrine that use and 
disuse, broadly considered, are the main deter¬ 
minants of adaptations of structure in animal 
species. (2) The view that specific modifica¬ 
tions or ‘acquired characters’ of individuals 
are inherited by their offspring is also called 
Lamarckism, Lamarckian Inheritance, or 
Neo-Lamarckism. Cf. Orthogenesis. 
(1) This doctrine was summarized by La¬ 
marck in his ‘Third’ and ‘Fourth Laws,’ 
which are : (a) The development of organs 
and their power of action are constantly 
determined by the use of these organs; (6) 
All that has been acquired, begun, or changed 
in the structure of individuals during the 
course of their life is preserved in re¬ 
production and transmitted to the new in¬ 
dividuals which spring from those which have 
experienced the changes.’ More generally he 
elsewhere says, ‘ The gains or losses of organic 
development, due to use or disuse, are 
transmitted to offspring/ 
(2) It is now generally admitted that use 
and disuse, together with the direct effects of 
environing forces, may determine modifica¬ 
tions of structure in the course of individual 
life ; but many zoologists contend that such 
modifications are not inherited, and are 
therefore inoperative in the evolution of 
species. The latter therefore reject the 
essentially Lamarckian doctrine of the trans¬ 
mission of the effects of use and disuse. On 
the other hand, Lamarckian inheritance is 
often emphasized in opposition to natural 
selection. Hyatt and Cope in America, 
Eimer in Germany, Cunningham and Henslow 
in England, Canestrini and Cattaneo in Italy, 
support the views of Lamarck. The trend 
of opinion in the last decade has been dis¬ 
tinctly against the Lamarckian view. Cf. 
Heredity. (c.Ll.m.-j.m.b.) 
The Lamarckian or Orthogenesis theory of 
evolution may be illustrated by the diagram 
given below ; it is sufficiently described by 
its lettering. It may be compared with the 
analogous diagrams given under Natural 
Selection and Orthoplasy. 
LL', line of evolution. 1, 2, &c., successive genera¬ 
tions by physical heredity. e, e', &c., congenital 
endowment, m, m, &c., acquired modifications. The 
modification of one generation is added to the endow¬ 
ment of the next (Use-inheritance (q. v.)). 
Literature: Lamarck, Philos. Zool. (1809), 
and Hist. Nat. (1816-22). See also under Evo¬ 
lution, Acquired Characters, Heredity, 
and Natural Selection. (j.m.b., c.Ll.m.) 
Lambert, Johann Heinrich. (1728- 
77.) Born in Elsass. He travelled as tutor 
to two young Swiss noblemen. In 1764 he 
went to Berlin and was made member of 
the Academy of Sciences by Frederick II. He 
wrote in mathematics, natural science, and 
La Mettrie, Julien Offray de. (1709- 
51.) Born at St. Malo, Brittany. Phy¬ 
sician in the army of the duke of Gramont, 
he was discharged because one of his publi¬ 
cations was materialistic and atheistic. He 
was also compelled to leave France in 1746, 
and repaired to Holland, but was expelled 
again. Frederick II invited him to Berlin, 


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