Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Dictionary of philosophy and psychology including many of the principal conceptions of ethics, logics, aesthetics ... and giving a terminology in English, French, German and Italian, vol. 1 [a-laws]
Baldwin, James Mark
pulley ; at the other end they are attached to 
recording quills, which are pulled one way by 
the finger, the other by an elastic band. The 
dynamometer is used to determine the maximum 
force of a muscle, or to compare movements of 
the same estimated force. It is an oval of 
flexible steel, which can he compressed at the 
sides or pulled apart at the ends ; the amount 
of force exerted in either case is indicated on 
scales by a pointer, which remains at the 
highest point reached. The hand dynamometer 
is grasped in the hand and squeezed ; a larger 
form is used for the arm and other muscles. 
In the dynamograph the force exerted is re¬ 
corded on a revolving cylinder by means of 
tambours. This shows the rate and variation, 
as well as the amount of force exerted. 
Mosso’s ergograph measures the work done by 
a single set of muscles, and its rate of fatigue 
and exhaustion. The forearm is placed on a 
cushioned board and held immovable by two 
sets of clamps ; the second and fourth fingers 
are held fast in tubes, and the middle finger 
is attached to a string bearing a heavy weight ; 
in raising and lowering the weight this finger 
moves alone without bringing any other 
muscles into play. The recording part of the 
ergograph consists of a carriage, to which the 
string from the finger is attached ; it moves 
on two rods ; from this carriage another rod 
extends, with a quill which marks on a re¬ 
volving cylinder. There is also the ‘ spring ’ 
ergograph (Cattell, Binet). The myograph 
measures the form and rate of simple mus¬ 
cular contraction. It consists of a bridge 
placed over the muscle in question and bound 
fast. A rod extends down and rests on the 
muscle. As the muscle contracts, the rod 
is pressed up, and this acts on a tambour, 
which records the movement. 
The form of movement of various organs in 
speech is measured and recorded by apparatus 
which are applied to the proper organs in the 
same way as the myograph, and which work 
on the same principle. The lahiograph, 
laryngograph, and palatometer measure the 
movements of the lips, larynx, and palate 
respectively. By means of the polygraph 
(described above) these records may be ob¬ 
tained simultaneously. (h.c.w.) 
Physiological Processes. The rate and 
form of certain physiological processes furnish 
a measure of the condition and changes of con¬ 
sciousness. A record of such processes under 
normal conditions may be compared with other 
records, taken during hard thinking or strong 
emotion, or after intellectual effort, fatigue, 
&c. The rate and intensity of the heart-beat 
is measured by the cardiograph ; the sphygmo- 
graph measures the rate and form of the 
pulse ; the pneumograph measures the move¬ 
ments of the thorax in breathing. These are 
similar in principle to the myograph. In one 
form of pneumograph a flexible rubber bottle 
is bound to the chest ; it is compressed by the 
expansion of the chest in breathing, and the 
pressure recorded by a tambour. The plethys- 
mograph is used to measure ch anges in the 
volume of the arm, &c., due to changes in the 
blood-supply. It consists of a vessel into 
which the arm is inserted ; the opening about 
the arm is tightly closed, after the vessel has 
been filled with, e. g., water. Any increase in 
volume of the arm forces the water out into 
a second jar and causes a weight to fall, and 
vice versa; these changes are registered on 
a scale. 
B. Sensation and Perception. We have the 
following groups : (i) Demonstration ap¬ 
paratus ; physical and physiological instru¬ 
ments and models. Here belong models of 
eye, ear, brain, &c. ; models of the horopter, 
the field of vision, &c. ; large wooden copies 
of metal instruments, made to show the work¬ 
ing of the latter; models illustrating the 
stream of consciousness, the course of feeling, 
&c. ; apparatus for purely physiological tests, 
for astigmatism, for the change of the lens in 
accommodation (phacoscope), for demonstra¬ 
tion of the form of vowel waves by means of 
manometric flames, for recording muscular 
strength, work, and contraction (dynamo¬ 
meter, ergograph, and myograph), for the 
registration of pulse, respiration, volume 
(sphygmograph, pneumograph, plethysmo- 
graph), for exploring the eye (ophthalmo¬ 
scope). Many of these pieces should be 
included also under group (4) ; they may be 
tuirned to direct psychological account. (2) 
Apparatus for class experiments. These are 
instruments of the type of group (4), enlarged 
and simplified, to permit of the obtaining of 
results from a small class of students (on the 
average, from ten or twelve persons), or from 
very large numbers (two or three hundred). 
(3) Apparatus for drill experiments. These 
are cheap and simple forms of the pieces of 
group (4), intended for use with junior classes 
in the laboratory. Sanford (ref. below) figures 
and describes a large number of such instru¬ 
ments. (4) Research apparatus. Under the 
limits of the present heading, the psychological 
instruments proper fall into three larger and 
two smaller groups—optical, acoustical, and 


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