Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Dictionary of philosophy and psychology including many of the principal conceptions of ethics, logics, aesthetics ... and giving a terminology in English, French, German and Italian, vol. 1 [a-laws]
Baldwin, James Mark
The introspective method is essential to 
psychology, and it has been followed by 
psychological writers in all ages, from Plato 
and Aristotle downward. A main advantage 
of the method of experiment in psychology is 
that it gives opportunity for introspection 
under test conditions. Some psychologists 
may be called introspective in a special sense, 
because they make more exclusive use of 
the method than others. Among these are 
St. Augustine, Hobbes, Locke, Berkeley, Hume, 
and the earlier English psychologists in general. 
But no psychologist ever confined his procedure 
to mere introspection. It was always more 
or less supplemented by inference from re¬ 
sulting products to producing processes, 
and by observation of the manifestations of 
mental process in other minds. Cf. Psycho¬ 
Literature : Beneke, Die neue Psychol., 
Aufsätze i und 2 ; Herbart, Psychol, als 
Wiss., Zweiter Theil, Erster Abschnitt, chap.v ; 
Brentano, Psychol., chap, ii ; James, Princ. 
of Psychol., i. 115 f. ; Lade, Psychol., Descrip, 
and Explan., chap, ii ; Vignoli, La legge 
fondamentale dell’ intelligenza( 1876); Villa, 
Psicol. contemporanea ; and textbooks of 
psychology in general. (g.e.s.) 
Intuition [Lat. intueri, to look at] : Ger. 
Anschauung, Intuition (see Terminology, 
German, sub verbo); Fr.intuition', Ital. intuito, 
intuizione. (1) Sense intuition: the final 
stage in the mental determination of an ex¬ 
ternal object, consisting in a synthesis of 
elements in space and time. 
This meaning is in so far common with the 
philosophical meaning of intuition that it 
leaves open to analysis the discovery of the 
sensational and other elements which go into 
the determination, and in default of such 
analysis makes the intuition of objects an act 
of direct apprehension. See Intuition (in 
(2) Motor intuition : ready command of 
a complex action or series of actions inde¬ 
pendently of conscious preparation ; and the 
act itself considered as a motor synthesis. 
Applied to the act itself which is thus 
performed; a phrase which corresponds to 
percept, the object of sense-intuition. Some 
writers use synergy for the process of motor 
synthesis itself, and synerg might be em¬ 
ployed for the resulting action, co-ordinate 
with percept. This would be convenient in 
various discussions, such as the loss or impair¬ 
ment of the ‘ synerg ’ in apraxia, the relation 
of motor and sensory elements—that is, of 
percept and synerg—in all concrete determina¬ 
tions of objects. The adjective form, £ syner¬ 
gic,’ would also lend itself to use. 
Literature : sense intuition : see the 
general works on psychology and the titles 
given under External World, Perception, 
and Epistemology. Motor intuition : be¬ 
sides the foregoing, see the titles under 
Habit, Synergy, and Apraxia; also Ward, 
Mind, July, 1893, an^ Oct., 1894; Münster¬ 
berg, Die Willenshandlung ; Mosel, Le forme 
dell’ intuizione (1881). (j.m.b., G.E.S.) 
Intuition (in educational method). 
Primarily, the grasp of knowledge through 
the use of the senses ; concrete ways of ap¬ 
prehending knowledge. 
The middle ages had departed far from 
sense methods of teaching ; they emphasized 
the word or the symbol above the thing 
symbolized. Comenius and Pestalozzi brought 
the world of words and that of things into 
intimate relation again, by laying much stress 
on sense-perception in education. Herbart 
made a further advance by urging the impor¬ 
tance of appercejition. The perception itself 
is important only when fully apprehended. 
Cf. Method. 
Literature : Comenius, The Great Didactic; 
Pestalozzi, How Gertrude teaches her Chil¬ 
dren ; Bowen, Froebel, 4, 156, 159 ; Rosen¬ 
kranz, Philos, of Educ., 76-81. (c.De G.) 
Intuition (moral) : Ger. sittliche Intuition; 
Fr. intuition morale; Ital. intuizione morale. 
The immediate apprehension, apart from ex¬ 
perience, of moral principles or of the moral 
quality of action. 
Whether there are any moral intuitions, 
in the strict sense of the term, is a question of 
controversy between intuitive and empirical 
writers ; whether, if there are such intuitions, 
they are perceptions of the moral quality of 
particular actions, or of general principles of 
morality, is a question which divides the in¬ 
tuitionist writers themselves. See Intui¬ 
tional Ethics. . (w.r.s.) 
Intuition (in philosophy) : Ger. Intuition, 
Anschauung (see Terminology, German) ; 
Fr. intuition ; Ital. intuizione, intuito. Im¬ 
mediate or direct apprehension, perception, 
judgment, cognition, and the results of such 
The root-idea of this term is that of 
directness or Immediacy (q. v., different 
forms) in contrast to abstractive or repre¬ 
sentative knowledge, or, more frequently, to 
forms of knowledge which are mediated by 
a discursive process. This fundamental idea 


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