Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Dictionary of philosophy and psychology including many of the principal conceptions of ethics, logics, aesthetics ... and giving a terminology in English, French, German and Italian, vol. 1 [a-laws]
Baldwin, James Mark
incite to actions which it is the purpose and 
policy of the individual to inhibit. Examples 
of imperative ideas which affect both thought 
and action are : agoraphobia, the nervous dread 
of open places ; claustrophobia, the dread 
of shut-in places ; arithmomania, the im¬ 
pulse to count all sorts of objects and speculate 
uselessly and endlessly on numerical relations. 
Such tendencies as coprolalia, the impulse to 
use blasphemous or obscene expressions ; and 
such habits of thought as constant speculation 
about intellectual trifles, fear of contamination 
in the slightest and most exaggerated forms, 
may come to dominate so much of the in¬ 
tellectual processes as to approximate to a 
condition of insanity. It is to be noted that 
these unwelcome but insistent ideas (well 
characterized by the German Zwangsvorstel¬ 
lung) often cause intense fear, worry, and 
anxiety, even when they do not influence 
action ; the patient fears that he may yield to 
certain impulses, and maintains a struggle 
against a habit which he recognizes to be 
absurd. Rather few of the imperative ideas 
are purely intellectual, most of them being 
related to morbid motor impulses. Those 
that are sensory may he regarded as similar 
to Stnaesthesias (q. v.) or Zwangsempfind¬ 
ungen, or the inevitable association of one 
sensation with another ; while those which 
are entirely motor become nothing more than 
eccentric habits ; e.g. the trick of feeling some 
obligation to touch with a cane every post or 
tree, or some particular object on an accus¬ 
tomed walk. What is common to all cases is 
a bondage or impulse which the victim feels 
‘ to pursue a certain trivial or disagreeable 
line of thought, often associated with vocal 
utterance, or motor acts (and with emotional 
disturbance, such as fear, anxiety), along with 
sanity in other respects’ (Tuke). 
Literature : art. Imperative Ideas in 
Tuke’s Diet, of Psychol. Med., and literature 
there cited ; Mickle, Obsessions and Beset- 
ments, J. of Ment. Sei. (1896), xlii. 691; 
Thomsen, Lehre von den Zwangsvorstellungen, 
Arch. f. Psychiat., xxvii (1895); Kraeet- 
Ebing, Arch. f. Psychiat. (1890), 68, 529 ff.; 
Janet, Névroses et Idées Eixes (1898) ; 
Tuke, in Brain (1894), xxii. 179-97 ; Jack¬ 
son (and others), in Brain (1895), 318-51. 
See also works of Magnan, Koch, Legrand- 
de-Saulle, and Morselli, as cited under 
Doubting Mania, and Degeneration, (j.j.) 
Imperceptible [Lat. in + percipere, to 
perceive]: Ger. unmerklich; Fr. imperceptible\ 
Ital. impercettibile. Applied to stimulations 
or differences of stimulation which are too 
weak to be distinguished by consciousness. 
Such stimulations are said to be below the 
conscious Threshold (q. v.), as those which 
are * least or just noticeable ’ are just above 
it. The discussion as to whether there are 
sensations which are imperceptible is not 
raised here. Cf. Unconscious, (j.m.b., g.e.s.) 
Impersonal Judgment : see Proposi¬ 
Implicate and Implication : see Im¬ 
plicit and Explicit. 
Implicit and Explicit : Ger. mitein¬ 
begriffen, implicit (Implikation), and ausdrück¬ 
lich, explicit ; Fr. implicite (implication ; 
means also contradiction—th.f.) and ex¬ 
plicite ; Ital. implieito and explieito. That 
which is outwardly, definitely, or expressly 
included in any whole is explicit to the 
whole ; that which belongs to a whole but is 
not explicit is implicit to it. 
Inferable, nascent or incipient, immanent, 
all present shades of meaning expressed in 
various contexts by implicit. That which 
is, especially logically, implicit is called an 
implicate or an implication. Both implicit 
and explicit are applicable in particular to 
wholes of meaning or intent. Cf. the next 
topic. (J.M.B.) 
Implicit (in logic). Said of an element or 
character of a representation, whether verbal 
or mental, which is not contained in the re¬ 
presentation itself, but which appears in the 
strictly logical (not merely in the psycho¬ 
logical) analysis of that representation. 
Thus, when we ordinarily think of some¬ 
thing, say the Antarctic continent, as real, 
we do not stop to reflect that every intelli¬ 
gible question about it admits of a true 
answer; but when we logically analyse the 
meaning of reality, this result appears in the 
analysis. Consequently, only concepts, not 
percepts, can contain any implicit elements, 
since they alone are capable of logical analysis. 
An implicit contradiction, or contradiction in 
adjecto, is one which appears as soon as the 
terms are defined, irrespective of the pro¬ 
perties of their objects. Thus there is, 
strictly speaking, no implicit contradiction in 
the notion of a quadrilateral triangle, although 
it is impossible. But, owing to exaggeration, 
this would currently be said to involve not 
merely an implicit, but an explicit contradic¬ 
tion, or contradiction in terms. 
Any proposition which neither requires the 
exclusion from nor the inclusion in the uni¬ 
verse of any state of facts or kind of object 


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