Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Dictionary of philosophy and psychology including many of the principal conceptions of ethics, logics, aesthetics ... and giving a terminology in English, French, German and Italian, vol. 1 [a-laws]
Baldwin, James Mark
‘ faint ’ to ‘ lively.’ Despair is applied for 
the most part only to very strong degrees of 
assurance, as to a coming disagreeable event. 
The term fear is used for the emotion accom¬ 
panying moderate degrees of uncertainty. A 
curve may be roughly constructed, as in the 
figure, to show degrees of hope and fear 
(despair) with reference both to possible pro¬ 
gressive differences of emotion based on differ¬ 
ences of knowledge (ordinates of the curve 
EOE'), and also the relative presence c>f both 
hope and fear in the same state of mind for 
each stage of knowledge (the extended ordinates 
ee", &c., as divided by the abscissa — xx). 
As with all such schemes for representing 
psychological states, however, this diagram 
should not be considered as aiming at arti¬ 
ficial exactness. The phenomenon of affec¬ 
tive Contrast (q. v.), both simultaneous and 
successive, enters in all cases, (j.m.b., g.f.s.) 
Hopkins, Mark. (1802-87.) An emi¬ 
nent American divine, author, and educator. 
Educated at Williams College, he became 
professor of moral philosophy there (1830), 
and president (1836). In 1872 he resumed 
his former position as professor. He wrote 
in Christian apologetics and moral philosophy. 
Horde [Pers. ordu, a camp] : Ger. Horde ; 
Fr. horde ; Ital. orda. A small social group 
composed of a few families, and comprising 
not more than from twenty-five to a hundred 
persons in all. 
The horde is the lowest and most nearly 
primitive social organization of human beings. 
Examples : Yeddahs of Ceylon ; Mincopis of 
the Andaman Islands ; Bushmen of South 
Africa; the Fuegians of Tierra del Fuego; 
and some of the Inunit of the northern 
coasts of North America. The horde has 
no governmental organization. It is never 
identical with a Clan (q. v.). Hordes by com¬ 
bination may form a Tribe (q. v.). (f.h.g.) 
Horopter [Gr. opos, a boundary, + onrjip, 
one who looks] : Ger. Horopter ; Fr. horoptere ; 
Ital. oroptero. The sum total of the luminous 
points that find representation upon corre¬ 
sponding points of the retinas, i. e. that are 
seen single by the two eyes. (e.b.t.) 
It is capable of geometrical representation ; 
in the primary positions of convergence it 
consists of Müller’s Circle (q. v.) and a 
line through the fixation-point, and directed 
towards the feet of the observer. For a 
distant fixation-point, the horopter is the 
ground ; in walking, therefore, obstacles are 
seen single, and this furnishes the reason for 
the convergence of the vertical meridians of 
the eye. Helmholtz has given an exhaustive 
mathematical treatment of the horopter. This 
has been much simplified by Hering ; he 
applies to it the methods of projective geo¬ 
metry, which are peculiarly well fitted for 
dealing with it. (c.l.f.) 
The term was coined by Aguilonius (Opti- 
corum libri, vi, 1613). Vieth, J. Müller, and 
Prévost occupied themselves with the problem; 
but the modern theory begins with Meissner 
(Beitr. z. Physiol, des Sehorgans, 1854). 
Literature : Helmholtz, Physiol. Optik 
(2nd ed.), 860 ; Sanford, Course in Exper. 
Psychol., expt. 210, App. II; Hering, in 
Hermann’s Handb. d. Physiol., III. i. 375 ff-> 
401; Beitr. z. Physiol., iii, iv (1863-4); 
Wundt, Physiol. Psychol. (4th ed.), ii. 189 ff. ; 
Le Conte, Sight (1881), 192 ff. ; Hille- 
brand, Zeitsch. f. Psychol., v. (1893), 1 ff. ; 
Aubert, Physiol. Optik, 610 ff. ; Hankel, 
Pogg. Ann. (1863), cxxii. 575. (e.b.t.) 
Hotho, Heinrich Gustav. (1802-73.) 
A German Hegelian ; born, educated, and died 
in Berlin, where he became professor. Origin¬ 
ally a jurist, his attention was turned to 
philosophy through the influence of Hegel. 
Hours of Labour : Ger. Arbeitstag^-stun¬ 
den) ; Fr. duree (or heures) de travail ; Ital. 
ore di lavoro. The length of time per day 
which is spent in work under the direction of 
an employer. 
To the individual workman so far as he 
exei’cises his judgment, it seems desirable 
to prolong the hours of labour as long as the 
utility of the earnings outweighs the pain of 
production. But experience proves that the 
length of working day thus determined will 
not always prove advantageous to the public. 
Some labourers do not determine it for them¬ 
selves (e. g. child-labour) ; some sacrifice the 
future to the present in the determination. 
Therefore efforts are everywhere made, wisely 
and unwisely, both by combination and by 
legislation, to restrict the hours of employ¬ 
ment. (A.T.H.) 
Hugo of St. Victor. (1096-1141.) Count 
of Blankenburg, born in his ancestral castle 
in the Hartz mountains, and educated in 
German schools, until in 1114 he entered the 
Augustinian cloister of St. Victor, where he 
remained until his death. 
Humanism [Lat. humanus, human] : Ger. 
Humanismus ; Fr. humanisme ; Ital. umane- 
simo, umanismo. (1) Any system of thought, 
belief, or action which centres about human 
or mundane things to the exclusion of the 
divine (cf. the New English Diet., sub verbo).


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