Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Dictionary of philosophy and psychology including many of the principal conceptions of ethics, logics, aesthetics ... and giving a terminology in English, French, German and Italian, vol. 1 [a-laws]
Baldwin, James Mark
of the most fruitful movements in modern 
educational theory, and to this the term 
Herbartianism is also applied (cf. Pedagogics). 
In this, his theory of apperception is the central 
doctrine. The principal writers of the school 
are Ziller, Rein, and Lange. Herbart’s own 
pedagogical work is The Application of Psy¬ 
chology to the Science of Education (Eng. 
trans., 1898). (j.m.b.) 
Literature : Herbart’s complete works have 
been edited by G. Hartenstein (latest ed. in 
13 vols., 1883-93). His most important psy¬ 
chological writings are Psychologische Unter¬ 
suchungen über die Stärke einer Vorstellung 
(1812 ; Werke, vii), Ueher die Möglichkeit 
und Nothwendigkeit Mathematik auf Psycho¬ 
logie anzuwenden (1822; Werke, vii), Psy¬ 
chologie als Wissenschaft neu gegründet auf 
Erfahrung, Metaphysik und Mathematik 
(1824-5; Werke, v, vi). The Lehrbuch zur 
Psychologie (ist ed. in 1813, 2nd ed. revised 
and enlarged in 1834 ; Werke, v ; also in Eng. 
trans.)gives a brief account of his psychological 
doctrine adapted for beginners. For general 
accounts of Herbart see the histories of modern 
philosophy, especially Höefding ; on the psy¬ 
chology, F. A. Lange, Grundlegung d. math. 
Psychol. (1865); G. Dumdey, Herbart’s Ver- 
hältniss z. engl. Associationspsychol. (1890); 
Stout, Mind, 1898, 321, 473, and 1899, 1, 
353; Ribot, Ger. Psychol, of To-day (Eng. 
trans.), 24 IF.; Ziehen, Verhältniss d. Her- 
bart’schen Psychol, z. physiol.-exper. Psychol. 
( 1900) ; on the pedagogics, De G aemo, Herbart 
and the Herbartians. (g.e.s.-j.m.b.) 
H erbert, Edward, of Cherbury. (1581- 
1648.) Born in Montgomery castle in 
northern Wales, and educated at Oxford, he 
became knight of the Order of the Bath in 
1603. In 1608 he journeyed to France, and in 
1610 to Flanders, where he joined the army 
of Prince Moritz of Oranien as a volunteer. 
After several years spent in Germany, Swit¬ 
zerland, and Italy he became (1616) emissary 
to the French court, and peer of Ireland in 
1625. In 1629 Charles I made him peer of 
England with the title Baron of Cherbury. 
He is an important figure in the history of 
English Deism (q. v.). 
Herder, Johann Gottfried von. (1744- 
1803.) An important figure in modern German 
literature. As a philosopher, he belongs with 
J. G. Hamann, Jacobi, and others, who vindi¬ 
cate feeling or faith against reason, which 
Kant had chiefly emphasized. 
Heredity [Lat. hereditas] : Ger. Vererbung ; 
Fr. hérédité; Ital. eredità. (1) Organic or 
physical : the transmission from parent to 
offspring of certain distinguishing characters 
of structure or function. 
(2) Social : the process of social transmis¬ 
sion ; that by which individuals of successive 
generations accommodate to a continuous 
social environment, thus producing Tradi¬ 
tion (q. v.). Suggested by J. Mark Baldwin 
[Amer. Naturalist, June, July, 1896). Cf. 
also Soc. and Eth. Interpret, (ist ed., 
1897), (C.El.M., J.M.B.) 
(1) Organic. Many of the general facts of 
organic heredity have long been known. The 
theory of evolution has opened up fresh ques¬ 
tions with regard to its nature, origin, and 
limitations. Of late the question has been 
raised whether Acquired Characters (q.v.) 
are thus transmitted. As in the case of so 
many biological problems, the discussion has 
been transferred from the organism to the 
cell. According to the Cell Theory (q.v., 
7), there is a continuity of cell life; and, 
in Reproduction (q.v.), this continuity is 
maintained in the germ-plasm; cf. the dia¬ 
gram given under Cell. Any transmission 
of acquired characters must be by some mode 
of influence of the body-cells on the germ- 
cells, the exact nature of which is at present 
unknown. Assuming that such influence of 
other than a general kind (e.g. in nutrition, 
poisoning, &c.) is unproven, and omitting the 
cases of transference of microbes as in some 
diseases (e. g. syphilis), there remains the 
question of the nature of hereditary trans¬ 
mission in the germ-cells. How do the char¬ 
acters of the adult lie enfolded in the fertilized 
ovum I And how do they become unfolded in 
the course of development 1 It is generally 
admitted that the Idioplasm (q.v.) contains 
the hereditary substance which in some way 
controls cell-development. According to one 
hypothesis there are present in the sexual cells 
minute germinal representatives of all the 
parts of the adult ; of these the ‘ gem¬ 
mules ’ of Darwin are derived from all 
parts of the organism (cf. Pangenesis) ; the 
4 biophores ’ and 4 determinants ’ of Weismann 
belong to the germ-plasm alone. 
According to a second great hypothesis, the 
differentiation results from the mutual influ¬ 
ence of the cells, the nature of each being 
determined by the environment made by the 
others. Other hypotheses combine, in different 
degrees, the conception of nuclear distribution 
and environing influence. But we are still 
far from anything like an ultimate solution of 
the problem. (c.Ll.m.) 


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