Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Dictionary of philosophy and psychology including many of the principal conceptions of ethics, logics, aesthetics ... and giving a terminology in English, French, German and Italian, vol. 1 [a-laws]
Baldwin, James Mark
sized Christ’s humiliation in the state of 
death. Others, like Schleiermacher and the 
Wesley ans, hold that the doctrine is without 
scriptural warrant. The details of the journey 
and sojourn are to be found in the extra¬ 
ordinary ‘ Gospel of Nicodemus.’ Similar 
stories, it may be noted, are current in other 
It is well to remember that, on all the 
matters discussed under this head, the most 
striking feature of Scripture is its silence. 
Consequently, philosophical discussion of the 
subject must be based more on the ideas of 
the destiny of mankind formulated at various 
periods and by various races than upon docu¬ 
mentary evidence. See Eschatology, and cf. 
Literature : Pfleidebeb, Philos, of Re¬ 
ligion (Eng. trans.), iv. 154 f. ; Algeb, 
Crit. Hist, of the Doctrine of a Future 
Life ; Atzbebgeb, Eschatologie ; Kliefoth, 
Eschatologie; Delitzsch, Bib. Psychol. (Eng. 
trans.) ; Kabisch, Die Eschat. d. Paulus. 
On the descent into hell : Peleidebeb, 
loc. cit., and iii. 101 ; Peaeson, Exposition of 
the Creed ; König, Lehre v. Christi Höllen¬ 
fahrt; Schweizeb, Hinabgefahren z. Hölle 
als Mythus ohne bibl. Begründung ; Boyeb, 
(Amer.) Luth. Quart. (1894). (b.m.w.) 
Hellenistic (Civilization, &c.) or Hellen¬ 
ism [Gr. ’EXKrjvurrrjs, an imitator of the 
Greeks] : Ger. hellenistisch ; Fr. hellénistique ; 
Ital. ellenizzante, Ellenismo. (1) The term 
characterizing the composite civilization which 
flourished in the lands round the Mediterra¬ 
nean, but particularly in Egypt and Syria, 
from the time of Alexander the Great. 
It was composite because it consisted in the 
junction of Greek with oriental influences and 
characteristics. One aspect of it is of supreme 
importance for philosophy of religion—the 
influence of Greek civilization upon the Jews, 
and the results of this. A juster appreciation 
of the subject—its circumstances and conse¬ 
quences—has become possible only during the 
last generation, and is still in progress. Its 
prime importance may be gathered from the 
fact that, notwithstanding the lamentable de¬ 
struction of many of the monuments of Graeco- 
Jevvish literature, three of them remain 
practically unimpaired. Those are the Greek 
translation of the Hebrew Scriptures, known 
as the Septuagint; the writings of Philo 
of Alexandria; and the New Testament 
books. Hellenistic civilization is therefore 
hardly to he overestimated for the under¬ 
standing of the rise and early history of 
Christianity, as well as for the religious and 
spiritual condition of the world into which 
Jesus was born. Possibly, it may not be in¬ 
apposite to add that few fields offer richer 
material to the student. 
(2) The name Hellenistic is applied also to 
the.Greek idiom or diction which sprang up 
when the Jews came into contact with Hellenic 
civilization. In contradistinction to the 
Romans, the Jews came by Greek rather 
through commerce than through literature; 
hence, to a large extent, the formal defects 
incident to their use of the Greek language. 
Something must also be set down to the 
changes which had taken place in the language 
itself under pressure of the universalism of 
Alexander. Hebrew, further, reacted on 
Greek ; and from these influences, along with 
others of less moment, sprang the language 
and style of which the New Testament is the 
chief monument, and the Septuagint and Philo 
the great historical exemplars. 
Literature : For (1) : Schüeeb, Hist, of 
the Jewish People in the Time of Christ (Eng. 
trans.), giving full literature. For (2): Reuss, 
Hist, of the New Testament (Eng. trans.), 
giving full literature. (b.m.w.) 
Helmholtz, Hermann von. (1821- 
94.) Born at Potsdam, Prussia, and edu¬ 
cated for military surgery. He received his 
Ph.D. degree from Berlin University, 1842, 
and became surgeon in the army ; assistant in 
the anatomical museum at Berlin ; professor 
of physiology after 1849 at Königsberg, after 
1855 at Bonn, and after 1858 at Heidelberg. 
After 1871 he was professor of physics at 
Berlin, and in 1888 took charge of the Physi¬ 
kalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt. His fame 
rests upon valuable contributions to the physio¬ 
logy of the nervous system, to the theory 
of mathematical physics, and to the psycho¬ 
logy of sight and sound. One of the founders 
of experimental psychology, and one of the 
most famous scientific men of the 19th 
Helvétius, Claude Adrien. ( 1715-71.) 
A French philosopher, an Encyclopedist, born 
and died in Paris. Educated at the College 
of Louis le Grand, and prepared by an uncle 
for a career as financier, in 1738, through 
the queen, he received the lucrative position 
of farmer-general, and later became chamber- 
lain of the queen’s household. Gaining a 
fortune, he retired to an estate at Voré in 
1751, devoting the remainder of his life to 
the care of his property and to literature. 
"While in Paris he had associated with Diderot, 


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