Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Dictionary of philosophy and psychology including many of the principal conceptions of ethics, logics, aesthetics ... and giving a terminology in English, French, German and Italian, vol. 1 [a-laws]
Baldwin, James Mark
Force (figurative meanings) and Condi¬ 
tion. Used, as in Social Force (q. v.), 
moral force, economic force, &c., with much 
ambiguity. When so used the word should 
lose its physical connotation ; and the fact 
of agency should be defined in terms of the 
material and changes peculiar to the sphere 
in which the force is said to work. 
Force means that which produces a change 
of rest or motion ; and the sorts of forces are 
those producers of change which manifest 
themselves under different but constant phy¬ 
sical conditions. We speak of mental, socio¬ 
logical, &c., forces in the analogous case of 
change in phenomena of one of these several 
orders ; and to give the term any intel¬ 
ligible meaning we must keep within the 
particular order of phenomena as strictly as 
does the physicist in defining his forces always 
in terms of motion in space which determines 
other motion in space. In other words, the 
force is intrinsic or internal to the movement 
in which it is said to be exerted. 
Thus social forces are social grounds of social 
change ; moral forces, moral grounds of moral 
change, &c. The real force in the particular 
case is often confused with the extraneous 
conditions which limit them or interfere with 
them. Variations in agricultural conditions 
which limit production are not economic forces; 
the farmer’s changed expenditures, conditional 
upon agricultural variations, are economic 
forces. So also, brain-changes are not psycho¬ 
logical forces. The President is not a political 
force, though his message to Congress is. 
These figurative meanings given to the word 
force carry confusion throughout the border¬ 
lands of the sciences generally ; we find such 
confusion between biological and Bionomic 
Forces (q. v.); between social and Socio- 
nomic Forces (q.v.); between psychological 
and Psychonomic Forces (q.v.). We re¬ 
commend the carrying out of the distinction 
suggested under the terms cited (ending in 
* nomic,’ Gr. vô/xos) into the various spheres 
where the separation may be made between 
forces proper to the group of phenomena of a 
science and those of another group and 
science which limit or in any way condition 
the former. This preliminary distinction 
would go some way towards settling many of 
the disputed questions of the demarcation of 
the bounds of the sciences. (j.m.b.) 
Force (political), (i) Compulsion exer¬ 
cised by the state. See Sovereignty, and 
Government; also Force (figurative mean¬ 
ings). (J.M.B.) 
(2) When the opinions or aims of a part of 
the nation exert an influence on the action 
of the governing body, that part of the nation 
is said to be a force in politics, or a political 
force. More strictly, the expression should 
be ‘ a section of opinion, &c., has (not is) a 
political force,’ i. e. exerts political influence. 
The expression has become current only in 
recent times ; hut we find the germ of it in 
such passages of Bentham as the Parliamen¬ 
tary Reform Catechism (1818), 150, § 7 : ‘ The 
sense of the whole body of the people cannot 
be adequately conformed to by their representa¬ 
tives except in so far as the suffrage of each 
person has a force and effect ’ equal to that 
of every other. The meaning of ‘ a political 
force ’ was essentially conveyed by the Times 
(London) when it declared (Nov. 18, 1843) 
that the Anti-Corn-Law League was ‘ a great 
fact. He who frames laws must to some 
extent consult ’ it. (j.b.) 
Foreign (in law) [Fr. forain] : Ger. aus¬ 
ländisch ; Fr. étranger ; Ital. straniero. Per¬ 
taining to a foreign sovereignty. ‘ The several 
states of the United States are, as respects 
their relations to each other, excepting only 
such of these as are regulated by the constitu¬ 
tion of the United States, independent and 
foreign sovereignties.’ Fisher v. Fielding, 67 
Connecticut Reports, 105. A corporation 
chartered by one state is therefore a foreign 
corporation in every other. (s.e.b.) 
Foreknowledge [AS./or,before, + cnawan, 
to know] : Ger. Vorherwissen, Voraussicht ; 
Fr. prescience ; Ital. prescienza. Full know¬ 
ledge of the future. 
If God, according to our idea, must be 
omniscient, as theology contends, then he 
must he as fully aware of the future as of the 
past, and therefore possesses foreknowledge. 
This conclusion has had great importance for 
religious thought on account of the manner 
in which it has been applied to ‘ the plan of 
salvation.’ If God’s foreknowledge be a 
determining element in the salvation of man¬ 
kind, what room is left for spiritual freedom 
in men ? This problem, running back to the 
writings of Plato, has produced endless dis¬ 
cussion ; for instance, as between Calvinists 
and Arminians. Philosophically, the ques¬ 
tions connected with foreknowledge are 
secondary; that is to say, they depend upon 
the solution of the problem of omnipresence. 
According to the answer given to this will 
the speculative view of foreknowledge be. 
Cf. Attributes (of God), Calvinism, and 
God (in theology). 


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