Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Dictionary of philosophy and psychology including many of the principal conceptions of ethics, logics, aesthetics ... and giving a terminology in English, French, German and Italian, vol. 1 [a-laws]
Baldwin, James Mark
emotional tone characterizing the whole or 
any part of an aesthetic object. 
The history of the analysis of aesthetic 
feeling as such is intimately bound up with 
the development of psychology. Plato and 
Aristotle both developed theories of pleasure 
and pain, and subsequent philosophic writers 
elaborate more or less upon their views. But 
it is not until the time of Kant and his im¬ 
mediate predecessors that we meet with a 
really serious attempt to differentiate feeling 
as an element of aesthetic experiences, and 
submit it to critical examination. Sulzer, 
writing under the influence of Leibnitz, 
may be mentioned as the first to carry out 
such a systematic analysis. He finds in feeling 
the essential characteristic of primitive con¬ 
sciousness. The pleasure actually felt in the 
beautiful, he insists, is to be referred to the 
increased feeling of mental activity—a doctrine 
closely related to Aristotle’s theory of pleasure 
—although he admits with the Wolffians that 
the nature of beauty itself rests upon perfect 
unity in plurality. Tetens and Kant are 
largely responsible for the adoption of the 
term feeling (Gefühl) to designate the agree¬ 
able and disagreeable aspect of conscious 
processes, the term sensation (Empfindung) 
having generally been used before. Kant’s 
development of the principle of aesthetic judg¬ 
ment involves a recognition of the significance 
on the one hand of aesthetic feeling merely as 
such, and on the other hand an elaboration of 
the more distinctly intellectual factors entering 
into aesthetic experiences. For him the act 
in which beauty is perceived constitutes essen¬ 
tially an implicit judgment in terms of feel¬ 
ing. This judgment rests ultimately upon the 
adaptation of the perceived object to our mental 
capacities. Under the influence of interests 
which were more distinctly ethical, Home, 
Hutcheson, Shaftesbury, Burke, and other 
English writers developed an analysis of feel¬ 
ing which, despite its shortcomings, marks 
a distinct advance in the attempts to un¬ 
ravel the complexities of aesthetic experi¬ 
ence. Thus Shaftesbury reduces the moral 
sense and the sense for beauty to a funda¬ 
mental regard in the mind for harmony 
and proportion wherever found. Hutcheson 
goes further, and maintains that we pos¬ 
sess an £ internal sense,’ through which we 
perceive beauty. This, too, is apparently 
much what Burke means, when he speaks 
of ‘ taste ’ as a name for the faculty with 
which we judge works of art. Coming to 
more recent treatments, we may mention the 
tendency shown by certain aestheticians toward 
the recognition of feeling as the basal aesthetic 
category, from which aesthetic theory should 
proceed. This movement is in somewhat defi¬ 
nite antithesis to the logical, ethical, and meta¬ 
physical trend of those writers who emphasize 
more particularly form and content as the 
fundamental aesthetic elements. Köstlin, Car¬ 
rière, and Bosanquet may serve as illustrations 
of the latter trend ; Kirchmann, Horwicz, and 
Marshall of the former. Cf. Sentiment. 
Literature : for general treatises, see Aes¬ 
thetics ; indications under Feeling ; Nah- 
lowsky, Das Gefühlsleben (1884); Lehmann, 
Hauptgesetze des menschlichen Gefühlslebens 
(1892); Groos, Einleitung in d. Aesthetik; 
Hartmann, Aesthetik (1886-7); Marshall, 
Pain, Pleasure, and Aesthetics (1894). (j.r.a.) 
Feigning (in biology) : see Make-believe 
Felapton : see Mood (in logic). 
Felicific [Lat. felix, happy, + facere, to 
make] : Ger. glückbringend ; Fr. agréable, qui 
donne le bonheur, visant au bonheur ; Ital.feli- 
citare (verb). Tending to produce happiness. 
That the morality of conduct depends upon 
its felicific consequences is the thesis of 
Eudaemonism and of Hedonism. See those 
terms. (w.R.s.) 
Felicity : Ger. Glück-, 'Ey. félicité, bonheur ; 
Ital. felicità. See Happiness, and Felicific. 
Female [Lat. femina, a woman] : Ger. 
weibliches Wesen ; Fr. femelle ; Ital. femmina. 
That organism which produces ova or ovules. 
The differentiation of the sexes forms an 
interesting subject of study both in botany 
and zoology. The theory of evolution has 
given it prominence. Associated with the 
differentiation of sex there has been a differen¬ 
tiation in the sexual individuals giving rise to 
the secondary Sexual Characters (q. v.). 
Literature : O. Hertwtg, Die Zelle u. die 
Gewebe (1893); Y. Delage, Structure du 
Protoplasma et l’Hérédité (1895); Geddes 
and Thomson, Evolution of Sex ( 18 8 9 ). (c .Ll.m.) 
Feminism : see Effeminacy. 
Fénelon, François de Salignac de la 
Mothe. (1651-1715.) Born at Périgord, 
France, he went to the University of Cahors 
in 1663 ; afterwards, to the college of Plessis. 
He began preaching in 1666, went to the 
seminary of St. Sulpice, and received holy orders 
about 1675. In 1678 he became superior of 
the order of Nouvelles Catholiques, and in 
1686 was sent by Louis XIY to Poitou to 
convert Protestants. He became preceptor to 
the duke of Burgundy in 1689 ; tutor to the 


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