Volltext: Dictionary of philosophy and psychology including many of the principal conceptions of ethics, logics, aesthetics ... and giving a terminology in English, French, German and Italian, vol. 1 [a-laws] (1)

Encephalon : see Brain. 
Encyclopedia (philosophical) : Ger. Ency- 
clopädie ; Fr. encyclopédie ; Ital. enciclopedia. 
Applied to the entire round of philosophical 
studies, but varying with the particular writer’s 
views of philosophy, from the Positivism of 
the French Encyclopedists (q. v.) to the 
Logicism of the Neo-Hegelians (q.v.). (j.m.b.) 
Encyclopedists [Lat. encyclopaedia] : Ger. 
Encyclopädisten ; Fr. Encyclopédistes ; Ital. 
Enciclopedisti. The French thinkers who in 
the third quarter of the 18th century edited 
the Encyclopédie ou Dictionnaire raisonné des 
Sciences, des Arts et des Métiers (28 vols., 175I_ 
72; Supplément, 5 vols., 1776-7» Table analy¬ 
tique, 2 vols., 1780), or contributed to the 
Of the group, Diderot was editor-in-chief, 
d’Alembert his principal associate until the 
retirement of the latter in 17 57 • D’Alembert 
was the author of the Discours préliminaire, 
in which the plan of the work was defined on 
the basis of Bacon’s division of the sciences 
and the Baconian method. Bousseau also 
ceased to write for the Encyclopédie in 1757» 
and thereafter manifested an active hostility 
to his former collaborators. Other notable 
contributors were Voltaire, Grimm, d'Hol- 
bach, Quesnai, Turgot, Marmontel, Duclos, 
de Jaucourt. Haller and Condorcet aided in 
the preparation of the supplementary volumes. 
Montesquieu at his death, in 1755» left an 
article partly finished. BufFon was early 
associated with the work, hut it is not certain 
that anything from his pen was actually 
printed (Morley, Diderot, i. 129-30). Writers 
of lesser rank were numerous and from 
all classes in society. After the defection of 
d’Alembert, Diderot remained the sole princi¬ 
pal editor, and by his unflagging energy and 
courage carried the enterprise through to its 
termination. Among the many difficulties 
which confronted him, not the least vexatious 
were the opposition of the orthodox party, and 
the interference of the authorities. F or the En¬ 
cyclopédie was more than a great1 dictionary of 
sciences, arts, and trades ’ ; it was conceived in 
the spirit of the Illumination movement, and 
it carried the principles, as well as the results, 
of the new thinking into the culture of the 
time. Thus it became at once a storehouse of 
information and a revolutionary force. 
Literature: Damiron, Mém. pour servir 
à l’Hist. de la Philos, au XVIIIe Siècle, 
i. 3, especially 240-3, ii. 5, especially 10-12 ; 
K. Bosenkranz, Diderots Leben u. Werke, 
i. 147-253 ; John Morley, Diderot and the 
Encyclopaedists, i. chap. v. Also the histories 
of philosophy (as Windelband, Gesch. d. 
neueren Philos., i. § 44), and the histories of 
literature (as Hettner, Litteraturgeschichte 
d. i8ten Jahrhunderts, ii. Absch. 2, especially 
Kap. 1). (A.c.A.jr.) 
End (ethical) : for equivalents, see the 
following topic. The ultimate purpose which 
ought to be aimed at in conduct, and to which 
other purposes ought to be subordinated. 
Ethics may be said to be a theory of the 
end or ends of conduct. This view was first 
made definite and prominent by Aristotle, 
whose whole doctrine is dominated by the 
conception of end (réXos). Starting from the 
position that well-being (evdaifiovia) is by 
common consent the end, he seeks a more 
precise definition of this conception. And 
modem ethical controversy is largely con¬ 
cerned with the claims of rival conceptions 
(e. g. happiness, perfection, self-realization) to 
be regarded as the ethical end. This teleo¬ 
logical view of ethics is contrasted with the 
quasi-jural view in which moral law is the 
ultimate conception (as in Kant and the in¬ 
tuitional school). (w.R.s.) 
From one point of view the definition of 
ethical end in terms of actual psychic purpose 
is a mistaken one. Ends are—in so far as 
immediate to the individual, i. e. in so far 
as they are purpose—particular aspects of 
conation, and in their most generalized form 
still particular with reference to one another 
—general only with reference to the particular 
cases generalized or subsumed under each, and 
that in the peculiar sense of subordination in 
a system. If an end becomes really universal, 
just then it loses its ethical significance ; since 
it is imposed upon the individual or upon the 
particular conative tendencies, not developed 
by their systematization, so that it is not 
the individual’s psychic end. Further, the 
genetic point of view is quite ignored by this 
form of definition. As consciousness develops, 
the synthesis of conative processes becomes 
ever more complex and indefinitely varied, 
and the resulting psychic ends or ideals ever 
richer and more adequate to experience. The 
individual’s concrete purpose—even his most 
general purpose or life-ideal—is therefore 
never universal. In so far as he treats it as uni¬ 
versal, it is as a formal regulative demand, not 
a purpose ; and just here arises the antinomy 
of good intention with reference to purpose, 
and bad performance with reference to law. 
We come, therefore, to require a definition 
of ethical end from the point of view of the 


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