Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Dictionary of philosophy and psychology including many of the principal conceptions of ethics, logics, aesthetics ... and giving a terminology in English, French, German and Italian, vol. 1 [a-laws]
Baldwin, James Mark
ences which excited similar emotions are sup¬ 
posed to issue in the same expression ; that of 
‘antithesis,’ whereby opposite emotions show 
opposite expressions, although only one of the 
expressions may have utility ; that of ‘ direct 
nervous discharge,’ according to which stimu¬ 
lations, mainly of an excessive character, would 
discharge themselves in muscular activity. 
This principle has taken formulation in later 
writers in the principle of ‘ hedonic expres¬ 
sion ’ (Spencer, Bain ; the expression is from 
Baldwin), which recognizes the facts that plea¬ 
sure increases muscular movement in certain 
muscles, and that pain lessens it ; the same 
principle being used by the last-named writer 
to explain ‘ antithesis.’ Darwin assumed that 
the state of emotion preceded the expression 
and caused the latter : the so-called Cause 
Theoby (q.v.) of emotion. Recently the 
theory has been advanced—called the ‘ James- 
Lange Theory’—that the emotion is the 
mental indication of the changes which con¬ 
stitute the so-called ‘expression’; that is, the 
actions of utility or other take place, and these 
are reported in the brain, giving rise to the 
qualitative experiences which we call emotions. 
The recurrence of a certain emotion, or its 
artificial stimulation, in the absence of its 
appropriate object, is the incipient revival of 
the earlier expressions—an ‘ organic rever¬ 
beration’ (James). This, called variously the 
‘ effect theory,’ the ‘ peripheral theory,’ &c., of 
emotion, is still under discussion, in opposition 
to the ‘ cause theory,’ noted above. 
Literature: see under Emotion, also Bibliog. 
G, 2, e ; Dae win, Expression of the Emotions; 
Bell, Anatomy of Expression ; Lange, Die 
Gemüthsbewegungen ; J ame s,Princ. of Psychol., 
ii. chap, xxv ; and Psychol. Rev. (1894), 
i. 516; Pidekit, La Mimique et la Physio¬ 
nomie (1888); Mantegazza, Fisionomia e 
Mimica (1878); Ikons, arts, in Mind and 
Philos. Rev. (since 1893); Dewey, The Theory 
of Emotion, Psychol. Rev., i. 553, ii. 13; 
Stout, Manual of Psychol. ; Sollies, Rev. 
Philos, xxxvii. (1894) 241 ; Wobcesteb, 
Monist, iii. (1893) 285; Lehmann, Haupt- 
gesetze des Gefühlslebens; Baldwin, Ment. 
Devel. in the Child and the Race, chap, viii ; 
Stumpe, Begriff der Gemütsbewegung, 
Zeitsch. f. Psychol., xxi. 47 ff.; the general 
works on psychology, especially those of 
Wundt, Ladd, Jodl. (j.m.b., g.e.s.) 
Empedocles. Greek philosopher, who lived 
in the 5th century B. c. Born at Agrigentum 
in Sicily. His talents and scientific attain¬ 
ments led his countrymen to offer him a crown, 
which he refused, using his influence to found 
a republic in Sicily. Fragments of a poem 
on Nature remain from his works. 
Empire : see Govebnment. 
Empirical [Gr. epneipla, experience]. 
Based upon (empirical views), guided by 
(empirical medicine), derived from (empirical 
knowledge) Expeeience (q. v.). (j.m.b.) 
Empirical Logic : Ger. empirische Logik ; 
Fr. logique empirique ; Ital. logica empirica. 
The treatment of logic on the basis or from the 
point of view of a sensationalist or other 
markedly empiricist theory of knowledge. 
The latter term, however, is very indeter¬ 
minate. The defining marks of an empiricist 
theory of knowledge can hardly he assigned 
with theoretical accuracy ; and, on the 
historical side, theories of knowledge that 
are rightly described as empirical have not 
always exhibited the same features. In its 
extreme form, the empirical theory of know¬ 
ledge identifies knowing with the immediate 
process of sense perception, and represents 
all connection in the content known as 
identical in kind with such connection as it 
is assumed may be apprehended in sense per¬ 
ception. From this point of view, the problem 
of empirical logic becomes the description of 
the ways in which a transition is made from 
the restricted, individualized basis of sense 
perception to the elaborated, generalized re¬ 
presentation of experience constituting science, 
together with an explanation or justification 
of the admitted difference between the 
primary and the derived aspects of know¬ 
ledge. It is easily seen that in such an 
inquiry the central question is that of the 
universal, whether in the form of the general 
notion, general idea, concept, or in that of 
the general proposition ; for it is universality 
that stands most sharply in conflict with the 
features assigned to the primary, fundamental 
type of knowledge. One or other of the 
aspects of this universality may be the more 
prominent, as e.g. the rather psychological 
feature of generality, as in notions or terms, 
in the discussion of which empirical logic 
tends towards extreme nominalism; or the 
more comprehensive aspect of knowledge as 
involving truth, objective validity, in the 
treatment of which empirical logic becomes 
a theory of inductive inference. The questions 
entering into the fundamental discussion re¬ 
garding knowledge are so varied, some being 
psychological, some metaphysical, and em¬ 
piricism has been so much determined in 


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