Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Titel:
Dictionary of philosophy and psychology including many of the principal conceptions of ethics, logics, aesthetics ... and giving a terminology in English, French, German and Italian, vol. 1 [a-laws]
Person:
Baldwin, James Mark
PURL:
https://digitalesammlungen.uni-weimar.de/viewer/image/lit29445/314/
DIRECTION — DISCRIMINATION 
of education and experience, resting, however, 
like all other functions, upon individual 
differences in aptness to learn. This would 
seem to be supported by the cases in which, 
as with the present writer, the ordinates of 
direction, lettered as points of the compass, 
are fixed by long custom at one’s birthplace, 
and remain as a sort of mental scheme to im¬ 
pose themselves upon every new environment. 
Literature : see the citations under Orien¬ 
tation, and many of those given under 
Instinct; H.E. Ziegler, Zoolog. Jahrbücher, 
x. (1897) 254. (J.M.B.) 
Direction (in optics) : see Line of Direc¬ 
tion. 
Disagreeableness : see Pleasantness 
and Unpleasantness. 
Disamis : see Mood (in logic). 
Disbelief: see Belief. 
Discernment [Lat. discernere, to separate] : 
Ger. Merken ; Fr. discernement ; Ital. discerni- 
mento. Separate attention to a part of 
some kind of whole, simultaneous or succes¬ 
sive, involving an elementary judgment of 
difference between the part singled out and 
the whole to which it belongs. 
Discernment as here defined implies distinc¬ 
tion of an object from its total context in 
exjierience, but not from another special object 
which is also singled out in like manner. See 
Discrimination. 
Literature : Clay, The Alternative, A Study 
in Psychology, 21. (g.f.,s.-j.m.b.) 
Discipline (in education) [Lat. disciplina] : 
Ger. (1) Erziehung, (2, 3) Discipline Fr. 
discipline ; Ital. disciplina. (1) Primarily, 
and in the large sense, systematic training 
through education. (2) Secondarily, and in 
the restricted sense, the maintenance of autho¬ 
rity by means of rewards and punishments. 
(3) A particular branch of study. See Formal 
Culture. (c.De G.) 
Discontinuity (in biology). The view held 
by those who deny Continuity (in biology) 
in any one of the four meanings enumerated 
under that topic. (j.m.b.) 
Discontinuity (in logic) : see Multitude. 
Discord [Lat. dis, apart, + cor, heart] : 
Ger. Missklang, Dissonanz; Fr. dissonance ; 
Ital. dissonanza. See Chord. (e.b.t.) 
Discount [OF. disconter ; Lat. dis, away, + 
computare, to count] : Ger. Disconto ; Fr. es¬ 
compte ; Ital. sconto. The difference in yalue 
between the right to receive a thing at once 
and the right to receive it at some future time. 
The difference between discount and interest 
is one of form rather than of substance. If 
A buys of B for $95 the right to receive $100 
a year hence, the transaction takes the shape 
of a discount. If A loans B $95 with the 
provision that he shall receive at the end of 
the year $5 more than the original $95, the 
transaction takes the form of an investment 
with interest. But the legal and economic 
relations of the parties are exactly the same in 
the two cases. The ethical and philosophical 
questions involved in the transaction are dis¬ 
cussed under Interest. (a.t.h.) 
Discourse : an older term for the Dis¬ 
cursive (q. v.) process. See also Universe 
(in logic). (j.m.b.) 
Discovery [Lat. dis + cooperire] : Ger. Ent¬ 
deckung ; Fr. découverte ; Ital. scoperta. The 
process (or result of the process) of attaining 
to a new truth, a fact or relation of facts not 
forming part of already established knowledge. 
The term has a twofold implication : (1) of 
an ideal antecedent, a suggestion, preconcep¬ 
tion, or hypothesis ; (2) of the establishment 
of the ideal antecedent as objectively true. 
Discovery is therefore most intimately con¬ 
nected with proof. It is often contrasted 
with Invention (q. v.). 
Literature : Whewell, Philos, of Discovery 
(i860); G. Gore, Art of Scientific Discovery 
(1878). (r.a.) 
Discrepancy : see Harmony, and In¬ 
consistency (in logic). 
Discrete [Lat. discretus, separate] : Ger. 
discret ; Fr. discret ; Ital. discreto. (1) Dis¬ 
continuous (see Continuity, and Continuum). 
(2) In logic : specifically but not generically 
different. Discrete notions are those which 
are co-ordinated under a more general 
notion. (j.m.b.) 
Discrimination [Lat. discrimen, that 
which separates] : Ger. Unterscheidung, Dis¬ 
tinction ; Fr. discrimination, distinction ; Ital. 
distinzione, discriminazione (Buccola). (1) A 
judgment of difference between two or more 
objects, each of which is discerned from the 
total context of experience at the time. 
(2) Used for Consciousness of Difference 
(q.v.) in cases of successive sensation, espe¬ 
cially under experimental conditions, the 
full expression being Sense Discrimination 
(q. v.). (g.f.s.-j.m.b.) 
As between Discrimination (1) and Dis¬ 
tinction, for which the foreign terms are com¬ 
mon, there seems to be a subtle variation in 
the character of the judgment involved. Dis¬ 
tinction has become a logical term, to indicate 
a more formal and verbal judgment of differ¬ 
ence, in extreme instances resting on verbal 
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