Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Dictionary of philosophy and psychology including many of the principal conceptions of ethics, logics, aesthetics ... and giving a terminology in English, French, German and Italian, vol. 1 [a-laws]
Baldwin, James Mark
ness (1891)3 Baldwin, Ment. Devel. in the 
Child and the Race, chap, iv ; Lombroso, 
opera omnia, and the works of his school, 
on dextrality compared with left-handed¬ 
ness in normals, lunatics, degenerates, epi¬ 
leptics, criminals, &c. (cited under Crimino¬ 
logy). See also Asymmetry. (j.j.-e.m.) 
Diabolism : see Devil. 
Diacoustics [Gr. did + ùkovcttikûs, per¬ 
taining to hearing]: Ger. Diakustik; Fr. di- 
acoustique; Ital. diacustica. The science of 
refracted sounds ; also called diaphonies. See 
Hearing (refraction). (e.b.t.) 
Diagnosis [Gr. did + yiyvdxrKeiv, to know] : 
Ger. Diagnose ; Fr. diagnostic ; Ital. diagnosi. 
The determination of the nature of a disease 
from its symptoms. Differential diagnosis 
refers to the comparative groupings of 
symptoms, whereby closely related conditions 
may be distinguished from one another. 
Diagnosis forms one of the principal factors 
of practical medicine, and is no less important 
in regard to mental than to physical diseases. 
Symptoms of mental disorder, however, are 
particularly difficult to describe and explain, 
since the normal variation of mental traits 
is both large and indefinite. For examples 
of diagnosis, compare what is said of the 
diagnosis of insanity (under Sanity and In¬ 
sanity), and the differential diagnosis of the 
different forms of aphasia (under Speech and 
its Defects). (j.j.) 
Diagoras. Lived in the 5th century b.c. 
A Greek poet and philosopher, who followed 
Democritus of Abdera; he was born on the 
island of Melos, and became a citizen of 
Athens. He was called an atheist, because 
he rejected the popular religion, polytheism. 
He left Athens 411 b.c., possibly banished 
for impiety. Died at Corinth. 
Diagram (logical) : see Logical Diagram. 
Diagrammatic Reasoning: see Reason¬ 
Dialectic [Gr. dia\enTiKrf\ : Ger. Dialektik, 
dialektisch; Fr. dialectique; Ital. dialettico, 
dialettica. ( 1 ) In ancient philosophy and logic : 
pertaining to reasoning or argument, and (as 
a noun) a system or course of reasoning or 
argument ; (2) Kantian sense : see Kant’s 
Terminology ; (3) Hegelian sense : see He¬ 
gel’s Terminology, III, IV; (4) an exten¬ 
sion of Hegel’s usage : the logical statement 
of a thought or other process, considered as 
realizing itself in recurrent symbols or 
material forms. Cf. the writings of the 
Neo-Hegelian school (Wallace, Caird, Watson), 
to whom the respective definitions are per¬ 
sonal interpretations of Kantian and Hegelian 
Literature : see extensive citations in 
Eisler, Wörterb. d. philos. Begriffe/ Dialektik ’ ; 
McTaggert, The Hegelian Dialectic, (j.m.b.) 
Dialectics (in education). The art of 
teaching by means of discussion, as seen in 
Plato’s dialogues, and involving, as with 
Socrates, inductive appeals to special in¬ 
stances. See Method (in education). 
Literature : McMurry, The Method of the 
Recitation, 221--32; Xenophon, Memora¬ 
bilia, Bk. IV. chap, ii ; Rosenkranz, Philos, 
of Educ., 101-4. (c.De g.) 
Diallelon : see Diallelus, and Tauto¬ 
Diallelus [Gr. 8id\\i]\os, through one an¬ 
other]: Circulus in probando (q.v.). (j.m.b.) 
Dialogic Method : see Socratic Method. 
Dialogism : see Inference. 
Diameter [Gr. did + pérpov, a measure] : 
Ger. Durchmesser-, F r. diamètre ; Ital. diametro. 
In craniometry several of the important 
maximal distances of the skull are termed 
Certain of the most important of the 
cranial diameters are (a) the anterior- 
posterior, or maximum length from the most 
prominent point of the glabella to the occipital 
point (Gl, 0 of the illustration under Cranio- 
logy) ; (b) the transverse maximum, i. e. the 
greatest transverse diameter of the cranium 
wherever found; (c) the frontal, or width of 
forehead ; (d) the maximum occipital, or 
greatest width of back of the head; (e) the 
vertical, giving height of the skull, or dis¬ 
tance from the top or culminating point of 
the vertex (or by some, from the bregma) to the 
basion or middle of the anterior region of the 
foramen magnum (line Bg, B of the illustration 
under Craniology). Many other diameters 
have been proposed as significant, some in the 
living head, as well as on the skull (see Gould’s 
Diet, of Med., art. Diameter). The relations 
of a to b and others give rise to indices. See 
Craniology, Facial Angle, and Index 
(also for Literature). (j.j.) 
Dianoetic [Gr. did + voeiv, to think] : Ger. 
Dianoetik, dianoetisch ; Fr. dianoetique ; Ital. 
dianoetico (suggested.—e.m.). (i) Pertaining 
to the intellectual or reasoning function and 
processes. (2) Made by Hamilton to apply 
strictly to the discursive or elaborative faculty, 
in contrast with noetic (q.v.), which denoted 
cognitions (Lects. on Met., xxxviii). (j.m.b.) 
In the first sense, Aristotle distinguished be¬ 
tween the dianoeticand the ethical virtues. (k.g.) 


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