Volltext: Dictionary of philosophy and psychology including many of the principal conceptions of ethics, logics, aesthetics ... and giving a terminology in English, French, German and Italian, vol. 1 [a-laws] (1)

office came to be wrapped up in the Person, as 
it never was in regard to Buddha. Cf. Christo¬ 
logy, Incarnation, Kenosis, Trinity. 
Stripping off later theological accretions, 
there seems to be little or no doubt that this 
identification was already an accomplished fact 
with the first generation of Christians. It 
imposed upon three considerations—crystal¬ 
lized propositions had not been formulated 
then: (i) The divinity, (2) the death, (3) 
the exaltation, of Jesus. To the earliest 
Christians the divinity of Jesus was synony¬ 
mous with his fulfilment of the Messianic 
office as verified by his conception of the 
divine revelation, and by the fact that he 
stood in a unique relation to God. His death 
was a necessary incident in his Messianic 
work, for it opened the gate to that new 
kingdom of God, in which man would be 
delivered from sin for ever. His exaltation 
was the indispensable prelude to his return 
in glory at no distant period. Other beliefs 
about Christ belong to the realm of theology 
rather than of history, and fall properly under 
Christology (q. v.). At the same time, 
several essential features of the earliest beliefs 
about Christ contain the germs of those which 
were to follow. In so far as they are Mes¬ 
sianic, they differ from Jewish expectations in 
being non-political and of a spiritual, even 
eschatological, nature. The expectation of the 
second coming of Messiah is entirely non- 
Jewish, and affords the basis for the doctrine 
of the kingdom of God. Further, and in 
strong contrast with what might be anticipated 
in a Jewish environment, there is evidence for 
the very early use of the Trinitarian formula. 
Literature : this is enormous. See arts, in 
Encyc. Brit, and Herzog’s Real-Encyc., also 
in Weiss, Bib. Theol. of New Testament 
(Eng. trans.). Later works are Harnack, 
Hist, of Dogma, i (Eng. trans.); Schürer, 
The Jewish People (Eng. trans.), and Die 
Predigt Jesu in ihrem Verhältniss z. A. T. u. 
z. Judenthum; Baldensperger, Das Selbstbe¬ 
wusstsein Jesu im Licht d. messianischen Hoff¬ 
nungen s. Zeit ; Wendt, Die Lehre Jesu (Eng. 
trans. of ii) ; Weizsäcker, Apostolic Age 
(Eng. trans.) ; Bousset, Jesu Predigt in 
ihrem Gegensatz z. Judenthum; Beyschlag, 
Bib. Theol. of the New Testament (Eng. 
trans.); Gunkel, in Theol. Lit.-zeit. (1893); 
C. Holtzmann, in Zeitsch. f. Theol. u. Kirche, 
i. 367 f. On the early presence of the Trini¬ 
tarian formula see Resch, Aussercanonische 
Paralleltexte z. d. Evangelien, ii. Heft (Paral¬ 
leltexte z. Matthaeus u. Marcus). (r.m.w.) 
i. i 
Christian Consciousness : Ger. christ¬ 
liches Bewusstsein ; Fr. conscience chrétienne ; 
Ital. coscienza cristiana. A variant on the 
Hegelian phrase £ universal consciousness,’ 
meaning, technically, consciousness of Chris¬ 
tian doctrine—in the sense of the Christian 
point of view—as diffused among men, and 
this with special reference to its unitary 
movement. The Christian consciousness is 
the Ethos, or self-determining expression, of 
Literature: Brace,GestaChristi; Schmidt, 
The Social Results of Early Christianity (Eng. 
trans.). Cf. Ethics (Christian). (r.m.w.) 
Christian Science: see Faith-cure. 
Christianity [Lat. Christianus, partisan 
of Christus] : Ger. Christenthum ; Fr. Chris¬ 
tianisme ; Ital. Cristianesimo. The name of 
the religion founded by Jesus Christ. 
Although based upon the entire career of 
Jesus, and issuing from his Person, Chris¬ 
tianity involved other elements even at the 
outset, and in the course of history it absorbed 
and assimilated several movements originally 
quite alien. On analysis, the constituent parts 
may be stated as follows: (1) Jesus Christ, 
in his life, death, and abiding personal in¬ 
fluence. (2) The Jewish environment of Jesus 
and the earliest Christians—with special 
reference to the Old Testament conceptions 
of God, Man, the Messiah, and to the Jewish 
Law. On a broad survey of the history of 
Christianity, it may be said that, whenever 
personal religion and personal conviction of 
sin have predominated, or when a reaction 
against dogmatic theology and the domination 
of ecclesiastical organization has taken place, 
a tendency to emphasize the Jewish factor of 
personal relation to God, or to return to God’s 
revelation of himself in Jesus, or to cling to 
both of these, has manifested itself. (3) Greek, 
Graeco-Jewish, and Neo-Platonic philosophy. 
During periods of theological controversy, 
especially controversy concerning the person 
of Christ (cf. Christology), or concerning 
God s relation to the world and man, this 
element has commonly exercised sway. (4) 
Roman polity. The Latin, Greek, and 
Anglican Churches are organizations modelled 
upon the Roman empire. In pre-Reforma- 
tion history the influence of the Roman or 
quasi-political element determined the ex¬ 
ternal organization of the Church, and fur¬ 
nished an ideal, the realization of which was 
expected to result in the erection of the 
kingdom of God upon earth. (5) The pecu¬ 
liar national consciousness, or racial tendency, 
7 N-


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