Volltext: Dictionary of philosophy and psychology including many of the principal conceptions of ethics, logics, aesthetics ... and giving a terminology in English, French, German and Italian, vol. 1 [a-laws] (1)

the truthfulness of the reproduction : this may 
be largely negative, for falsity or distortion is a 
source of displeasure ; (6) through its satis¬ 
faction of the interest in variety (as against 
monotony) ; (c) often also the demand to be 
oneself, and the feeling of interest in one’s 
own peculiar personality, are strengthened 
and gratified by the recognition of marked 
individuality in what is portrayed. For the 
history of the characteristic in art theories, 
see Art, and Expression. 
The discussion of the characteristic has 
not always been distinguished from that of 
expression. Properly, however, it is only 
one phase of expression. It has frequently 
been treated as an element outside of beauty ; 
‘ Beauty is perfection of form unmodified by 
any predominant characteristic ’ (Hare). Yet 
it is now generally regarded as one of the 
important elements of aesthetic value. 
Literature : Bosanquet, Hist, of Aesth. 
(1892); Fechner, Yorschule d. Aesth. (1876), 
chap, xxiii; Köstlin, Aesth. (1869); von 
Hartmann, Aesth., ii (1887). See also under 
Expression, and Art. (j.h.t.) 
Charity [Lat. caritas] : Ger. Charitas, 
Menschenliebe; Fr. charité; Ital. carità. 
(1) Benevolent love of others: commonly, in 
modern usage, it refers also (2) to the alms¬ 
giving in which that love is manifested. 
It is not possible to distinguish charity in 
its first and more general signification from 
Benevolence (q.v.) But the place given to 
it by Paul (1 Cor. xiii), as the highest 
virtue of Christian character, and its con¬ 
nection in his exposition with Christian faith 
and hope, coupled with the absence of any 
equivalent conception in the pagan or classical 
list of cardinal virtues, led to Augustine’s 
re-interpretation of the virtues as depending 
on love to God and one’s neighbour, and to the 
subsequent classifications of Aquinas and the 
mediaeval moralists generally. In these classi¬ 
fications the triad, faith, hope, and charity, 
were distinguished as ‘ théologie virtues ’ from 
the four cardinal virtues of classical tradition, 
and were held to be implanted in man by the 
supernatural grace of God. Of the three, 
faith was held by Aquinas to be first in order 
of origin, charity to be highest in order of 
perfection. Charity is said to be the mother 
and root of the other virtues, since it is 
through it that they attain the perfection of 
virtue {Summa, II. i. Q. 62). A modern 
Roman Catholic writer (Father Rickaby) 
defines charity as ‘ the love that we bear to 
Ourselves and our neighbours in view of our 
coming from God and going to God,’ and 
says, 4 Charity differs from philanthropy in 
looking beyond the present life and above 
creatures. A materialist or atheist may 
possess philanthropy, but not charity ’ {Mor. 
Philos., 238-9). 
The love or charity which characterized the 
early Christian society was from the first 
exhibited in provision for the poor by means 
of voluntary offerings. Charity, in this sense, 
was distinguished from mere liberality, be¬ 
cause due to the love of man to man, in virtue 
of their common spiritual relationship to God 
and Christ. It was accordingly encouraged, 
and to a large extent organized, by the 
Church. The uncertain benefits of indis¬ 
criminate almsgiving, and its frequent evil 
effects on the recipients, have led to various 
systematic attempts at the organization of 
charity (partly in connection with the Church, 
partly by extra-ecclesiastical organizations)— 
these efforts being directed towards com¬ 
bating the causes of pauperism instead of 
merely mitigating its results. 
The use of the term charity for favourable 
judgment upon the motives and character 
of others is connected with Paul’s en¬ 
comium upon it as ‘ thinking no evil.’ This 
usage is as much justified by the original 
meaning of the term as the special significa¬ 
tion of almsgiving. 
Literature : Lecky, Hist, of European 
Morals, iv; T. Mackay, The State and Charity 
(1898). (w.R.s.) 
Charm [Lat. carmen, song] : Ger. ( 1 ) 
Zauber, (2) bezaubern; Fr. (1) charme, (2) 
charmer ; Ital. (1) incanto, (2) incantare. 
(1) Noun: an object, saying, or formula, 
supposed to have peculiar virtue, and hence 
looked upon with veneration. Sometimes the 
influence is regarded as purely intrinsic to 
the object, as in certain verbal formulae, and 
at other times it is regarded as more or less 
derivative from connection with something 
else, usually a person. 
(2) Verb : to exercise a peculiar or fas¬ 
cinating influence. 
Usage (1) has been current in discussions 
of primitive religion (see Fetich, Amulet, 
Idol) and superstition. Usage (2) is largely 
employed in descriptions of so-called Fascina¬ 
tion, Trance, and Hypnosis, and in the 
practice of Magic (see these terms and the 
literature cited under them). (j.m.b.-g.f.s.) 
Charron, Pierre. (1541-1603.) An 
eminent French preacher and philosophical 
writer, follower of Montaigne, whose expres- 


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