Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Dictionary of philosophy and psychology including many of the principal conceptions of ethics, logics, aesthetics ... and giving a terminology in English, French, German and Italian, vol. 1 [a-laws]
Baldwin, James Mark
musical close in which the dominant passes 
into the tonic chord is a complete cadence ; 
that in which the subdominant passes into 
the tonic is an imperfect or plagal cadence. 
Literature : Helmholtz, Sensations of Tone, 
293; Sanfoed, Course in Exper. Psychol., 
expt. 96 ; Paeey, art. Cadence, in Grove’s Diet, 
of Music and Musicians, i. 290 (1879). (e.b.t.) 
Caird, John. (1820-98.) Born at 
Greenock on the Clyde, he diedat Dungourney. 
Educated in the Greenock schools. At the 
University of Glasgow, 1840-5 ; he received 
the M.A. degree in 1845, and was soon after 
ordained at Newton-on-Ayr. Elected to the 
Chair of Theology in the University of Glas¬ 
gow in 1862, he taught with great success, 
influencing his countrymen in the direction 
of a more philosophical theology. He was 
profoundly influenced by the philosophy of 
Hegel. In 1873 he was appointed Principal 
of Glasgow University, and continued in 
that position until his death. Delivered the 
Gifford Lectures in 1892-3, and again in 
Calculus (in mathematics) [Lat. calculus, 
a pebble] : Ger. (Differential- und Integral-) 
Rechnung; Fr. calcul (infinitesimal); Ital. 
calcölo (infinitesimale). A distinctive or well- 
defined system or method of reasoning by the 
aid of algebraic symbols. 
The term is most familiarly applied to the 
infinitesimal calculus, in which the laws of 
continuously varying quantities are investi¬ 
gated by supposing the variations to be made 
up of an infinite number of infinitesimal 
parts, called differentials. The aggregate of 
an infinite number of differentials, making a 
finite quantity, is called an integral. Cf. 
Infinite, Infinitesimal, and Limits, (s.n.) 
Callisthenes. A Macedonian historian 
and philosopher who died about 328 b.c. He 
was a cousin and pupil of Aristotle, and the 
companion of Alexander the Great in Asia. 
Fragments of his writings remain. 
Calorie : see Units of Measueement. 
Calvin, John. (1509-64.) An eminent 
Protestant reformer and philosophical theo¬ 
logian. Born at Noyon, Picardy, in France, 
and educated at Paris, Bourges, and Orleans. 
When twelve years of age he was tonsured, 
but was afterwards won away from the Church 
by relatives and friends, who showed him 
contradictions between the Bible and Roman 
doctrines. He enlisted in the Reformation 
about his nineteenth year. In 1533 he was 
forced to leave Paris, and retired to Angoulême. 
He fled from France to Strassburg in 1534, 
to Basel in 1535, to Bern, Zurich, Basel again, 
and Strassburg again in 1538, and to Geneva 
in 15 41. At Geneva he came to be ruler of the 
city. There he completed his famous Insti¬ 
tutes, fought all heretics, was implicated in 
the burning of Servetus, and died. See 
Calvinism: Ger. Calvinismus •, Fr. Calvin¬ 
isme ; Ital. Calvinismo. Calvinism is the 
name of the theological system promulgated 
by John Calvin, and is summed up chiefly 
in his Christianae Religionis Institutio. 
Calvinism had its historical and logical pre¬ 
decessor in Augustinianism (q.v.), and, from 
a philosophical standpoint, possesses similar 
merits and defects. Calvin treats of pre¬ 
destination, sin, and grace in the spirit of 
Augustine ; but, owing to the intervention of 
Reformation principles, diverges on such 
problems as the Church, faith, and justifica¬ 
Although, on the whole, Calvin was a 
practical rather than a speculative genius, his 
system, just because it is a system, possesses 
definite philosophical characteristics. It may 
be described as an account of human life set 
in the framework of a divine teleology. As 
such, it leans upon well-marked premises, and 
if they be granted, the resultant conclusions 
follow with great force. These premises 
may be summarized thus : (1) God, who is 
a self-conscious Spirit, has created the world, 
and being all-powerful, is able to interfere 
supernaturally in his universe. (2) He 
created the world in order to manifest therein 
his own ‘ glorious perfections.’ The final 
cause of creation must therefore agree with 
this original purpose. (3) As concerns man¬ 
kind, this final cause implies an ultimate 
division into the ‘ elect ’ and the ‘ non-elect.’ 
The .very idea of election, in other words, 
implies reprobation also. God foreordained 
! whom he would admit to salvation and 
whom he would condemn to destruction.’ 
(4) The eternal destiny of an individual is 
predestined by God’s original purpose, which 
is one with final cause. 
It is important to observe that, in elabo¬ 
rating the details of this system, Calvin was 
swayed, unconsciously, by the dead hand of 
Scholasticism. He was essentially a Realist. 
Adam, made in God’s image, constituted the 
original human type; human nature as a 
whole was contained in him. By his own act 
he apostatized, thereby falling from fellowship, 
or ‘ concurrence,’ with God, and coming 
under condemnation to death and moral


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