Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Dictionary of philosophy and psychology including many of the principal conceptions of ethics, logics, aesthetics ... and giving a terminology in English, French, German and Italian, vol. 1 [a-laws]
Baldwin, James Mark
of M.D. He practised medicine seven years. 
In 1810 he was made professor of moral 
philosophy in Edinburgh University. 
Browne, Peter. Died 1735. Provost of 
Trinity College, and afterwards bishop of 
Cork. He made a reputation as an orthodox 
theologian by a treatise against Toland. Later 
he opposed Locke in two anonymous works. 
Bruno, Giordano, (cir. 1548-1600). An 
Italian philosopher. He was born at Nola, in 
Naples, educated for the Church, and taken 
into the Dominican Order (1563). Of indepen¬ 
dent and speculative habit of mind, he found 
himself at variance with the orthodox doctrine. 
In 1576 he was forced to leave his monastery, 
and fled first to Geneva, then to Paris, and 
finally to England. He returned about 1592, 
to live in Venice. Accused of heresy, he was 
first imprisoned in Rome for seven years, and 
then burned as a heretic. In 1889 a monu¬ 
ment to him was erected on the spot of his 
execution. He accepted the Copernican theory 
of the movements of the heavenly bodies. 
Buchner, Friedrich Karl Christian 
Ludwig. (1824-99.) A German physio¬ 
logist, physician, and philosopher, born at 
Darmstadt. He maintained materialistic, 
atheistic, and ‘ humanitarian ’ views. His 
best known work is entitled Force and Matter 
(Kraft und Stoff). 
Buckle, Henry Thomas. (1821-62.) 
An English writer on the philosophy of history. 
His father, who was a merchant, bequeathed 
to him an ample fortune, enabling him to 
gather together a fine private library. He is 
best known for his History of Civilization in 
Europe, which attempts to establish a new 
and scientific method of studying history. 
Buddeus (or Budde), Johann Franz. 
(1667-1729.) A Lutheran theologian and 
philosopher, born at Anclam, Pomerania, and 
died in Gotha. In 1692 he became professor 
of the Greek language in Coburg; in 1693, 
professor of moral philosophy in Halle ; and 
in 1705, professor of theology in Jena. 
Buddha : Ger. Buddha ; Fr. Bouddha ; 
Ital. Budda. Buddha (the knower, the en¬ 
lightened one, the awakened) is not a person, 
as is so often supposed, but a name applied to 
a person who has achieved a certain spiritual 
and intellectual state. One who is delivered 
entirely from desire, who is a Jina, or con¬ 
queror of the needs arising in the sense-world, 
and who has overcome through knowledge of 
the ‘ eightfold path,’ attains Buddhahood. A 
Buddha is also marked by his missionary 
activity in spreading the knowledge ; this in 
contradistinction to such as possess the know¬ 
ledge yet retain it for themselves (Pacceka 
According to the Buddhist teaching, there 
were Buddhas in the past and there will be 
Buddhas in the future ; but so far as present 
knowledge goes, the Buddha was Siddhattha, 
of the family or tribe of the Sakyas (the 
powerful), who lived in the 6th century b.c. 
He is known also as Gotama Buddha, Gotama 
being a Vedic surname of the Sakya family ; 
and as Sakya Muni, or the Sakya sage. 
Literature : Oldenberg, Buddha, s. Leben, 
s. Lehre, s. Gemeinde (Eng. trans.) ; Saint- 
Hilaire, Le Bouddha et sa Religion (Eng. 
trans.) ; T. W. Rhys Davids, Buddhism 
(1880), Hibbert Lectures (1881), and Bud¬ 
dhism (American Lectures, 1896). Cf. 
Oriental Philosophy (India). (r.m.w.) 
Buddhism. See Buddha, and Oriental 
Philosophy (India). 
Buffon, Georges Louis Leclerc. (1707- 
88.) Philosopher and naturalist; born in 
Montbard, Burgundy, and liberally educated 
in France by his father. He travelled in 
Italy and England in company with Lord 
Kingston. In 1835 he translated Newton’s 
Treatise on Fluxions. In 1839 he became 
a member of the Academy of Sciences and 
intendant of the royal garden in Paris. In 
1753 he was admitted to the French Academy. 
In 1776 he received from the king the title 
Count de Buffon. 
Bulb [Lat. bulbus, root] : Ger. Bulbus ; 
Fr. bulbe ; Ital. bulbo. A synonym for medulla 
oblongata. See Brain. Also used in combi¬ 
nation, as bulbar paralysis, &c. (h.h.) 
Butler, Joseph. (1692-1 752.) An Eng¬ 
lish prelate and philosophical writer. Born 
at Wantage in Berkshire, he entered the 
grammar school there, then attended an 
academy at Gloucestershire, and entered Oriel 
College, Oxford. He was admitted into holy 
orders in 1716 or 1717, and became rector of 
Haughton. I11 1725 he obtained the living 
at Stanhope. In 1733 he became chaplain to 
Lord Chancellor Talbot, and in 1736, clerk 
of the closet to the queen. In 1738 he was 
promoted to the see of Bristol, and two years 
after was made dean of St. Paul’s. In 
1750 he was translated to the bishopric of 
Durham. He died at Bath, and was buried 
at Bristol. His reputation rests chiefly on his 
Analogy of Religion, Fatural and Revealed, to 
the Constitution and Course of Nature. 
Butler, William Archer. (1814-48.) 
An Irish writer and teacher of philosophy. 
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