Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Dictionary of philosophy and psychology including many of the principal conceptions of ethics, logics, aesthetics ... and giving a terminology in English, French, German and Italian, vol. 1 [a-laws]
Baldwin, James Mark
of the formative conception, historical consti¬ 
tution, nature, and authority of the collection 
of hooks known as the Canon. This disci¬ 
pline is usually termed Biblical Canonics. 
(2) Textual criticism, or investigation of the 
MSS., of the received text, and generally of 
all questions that hear upon the construction 
of a satisfactory text. This is often called 
the Lower Criticism. (3) Literary and his¬ 
torical criticism of single hooks, or of groups, 
usually known as the Higher Criticism. On 
the basis of a satisfactory text, this discipline 
proceeds to the investigation of questions of 
authorship ; circumstances of historical origin, 
including audience, design, and peculiar cha¬ 
racter ; relation of the work under considera¬ 
tion to others which may he fittingly classed 
with it. Another important office of higher 
criticism is investigation of the sources em¬ 
ployed by an author and his credibility in the 
use of them. The key-note of higher criti¬ 
cism lies in its complete independence of tra¬ 
ditional or dogmatic opinions. In this respect, 
like Canonics, it is of special value and in¬ 
terest for philosophy of religion. 
Literature : on the Canon of the O. T. 
see the relative -works of F. Buhl, Wilde- 
boer (Eng. trans.), W. H. Green, and Ryle 
(Intrccl.) ; of the IST. T., Beuss, S. Davidson, 
and Westcott. On Textual Criticism of O. T. 
see Strack, Prolegomena Critica, in Y. T. 
Hebraicum ; of the N. T., Scrivener’s Introd., 
Schaff’s Companion, and Green, Higher 
Criticism of the Book of Genesis. On 
Higher Criticism of O. T. see Cheyne, 
Founders of Criticism ; Robertson Smith, O.T. 
in the Jewish Church; Wellhausen, Hist, 
of Israel (Eng. trans.) ; of the FT. T., Bleek, 
Introd. to FT. T. (Eng. trans., 2 vols.); Sanday, 
Gospels in the Second Century; Abbot, 
Authorship of the Fourth Gospel; Green (as 
cited above). (r.m.w.) 
Biblical Psychology : Ger. biblische Psy¬ 
chologie’, Fr. psychologie biblique ; Ital. psico- 
logia biblica. An integral portion of theological 
anthropology. It consists essentially of a dis¬ 
cussion of man's entire constitution on the 
basis of Scripture declarations. 
Two main problems occur in it : (1) Is man 
composed of spirit (7Tveîiga), soul ('jsvxv)> and 
body?—or (2) Is he composed of soul and body? 
The Greek Fathers, taken as a whole, adopted 
the former view ; while the Latin Fathers, 
thanks partly to the emergence of Gnostic and 
other heresies, and partly to the poverty of the 
Latin language (spiritus and anima hardly 
conveying the sense of the Greek terms), 
tended to the latter view, or to a discreet 
silence. In the course of history, Biblical 
psychology has been rather elbowed out by 
dogmatics in the Western Church. The 
mystics raise the question of irveypa and 
once more ; and during the last 150 years more 
attention has been paid to it, especially in 
Germany, though systematic works are few. 
Literature: Melanchthon, Liber de Anima 
(I552)j Servetus, Christianismi Restitutio 
C1553) i Jacob Böhme, De Triplici Vita 
(1620); Bonnet, Palingéntsie philos. (1767); 
J. F. y. Meyer, Blätter f. höhere Wahrheit 
(1818-32); Olshausen,Opuscula(cir. 1825); 
H. Schubert, Gesch. d. Seele (1830); K. F. 
Göschel, Yon d. Beweisen d. Unsterblich¬ 
keit d. menschl. Seele (1835); T. J. van 
Griethuyzen, Diss. de notion, vocab. a-âpa 


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