Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Researches in cross-education. 
(b') That an accessory muscle of one arm gains as much from the train¬ 
ing of the corresponding muscle of the opposite side as from the training 
of the fundamental muscle of the same side. In terms of motor dis¬ 
charge this indicates that these centers occupy the same diffusion level. 
(c) That the reactionary or secondary gain of the fundamental muscles 
from the exercise of the accessory arm muscles is less than when the con¬ 
ditions are reversed—i. e., the fundamental muscles practiced and the 
accessory muscles reacted upon. This is in harmony with the accepted 
order of motor development. 
The theory of the spreading of impulses so clearly proven by Wissler 
and Richardson had been stated before by Exner1 and Urbant- 
schitsch.2 Damsch3 explained this diffusion as due to the close con¬ 
nection of all motor centers. Fibers from all motor centers come to¬ 
gether and are intimately connected in a central ganglion of the brain. 
The diffusion of an impulse is hindered by an inhibiting apparatus which 
prevents it from going the wrong way. “This apparatus is much im¬ 
proved by practice. In the young and in certain nervously disordered 
persons it is deficient.” 
“It was noticed in the tapping experiment that there was a tendency 
for the subject’s left foot to make movements to accompany those made 
by the right. In learning an act that involves fine coordination 
it is very obvious that the pupil executes many movements that are en¬ 
tirely unnecessary. ’ ’ 4 Nearly all the subjects in the experiment with 
the dynamometer5 would unconsciously clench the empty hand as well 
as the one in which the dynamometer was placed. 
The consideration of the above facts would seem at first glance to ex¬ 
plain “transference” as due to the unconscious indirect exercise of 
those motor centers, nerves and muscles that are not necessary to the 
movement that is being performed. It is true that the unused symmet¬ 
rical or closely related muscles may grow in size as a result of another 
muscle’s exercise. This was shown quite definitely in my first research. 
But there is a question whether this new substance that has been added 
to the muscle is a factor in the increased strength, rapidity or endurance 
1 Exner, Zur Kentniss von der Wechselwirkung der Erregungen im Centralnerven¬ 
system, Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol (Pflüger), 1882 XXVIII 487. 
1 Urbantschitsch, Üeber den Einfluss von Trigeminus-Reizen auf die Sinnesemp¬ 
findungen, insbesondere auf den Gesichtssinn, Archiv, f. d. ges. Physiol. (Pflüger), 1883 
XXX 129. 
3 Damsch, Ueber Mitbewegungen in symmet. Muskeln an nicht-gelähmten Gliedern, 
Zt. f. klin. Med., 1891 XIX 170. 
4 Davis, as before, p. 49. 
5 Davis, as before, p. 24.


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