Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

J. E. Wallace Wallin, 
1. Of all the fusions the o (normal) centroid alone has the highest 
percentage in the first degree and the lowest in the third degree. All 
the others have the smallest percentage in the first degree, with the ex¬ 
ception of f (pitch-intensity). 
Psychologically, this signifies that the normal or most prevalent mode 
of synthesis, though excelling in frequency, is vastly inferior in intensity. 
When an increase in intensity is effected, some one factor gains 
2. The loudness-pitch (£) synthesis alone has the highest percentage 
in the third degree. Hence this is the most effective mode of fusion in 
respect of intensity. The loudness-duration synthesis (g) is a close 
3. All of the last five modes of synthesis of Table I. (loudness-dura¬ 
tion, duration-loudness, pitch-loudness, duration-pitch, pitch-duration) 
have the highest percentage of centroids in the second degree. As 
second degree centroids, the duration-loudness and pitch-duration stand 
Thus far the elements have been considered in conjunction. No one 
element has been supreme. We now proceed to study the cases in which 
some one element predominates. 
Principle of substitution.—The percentages of frequency are as follows 
(Table II.): loudness, 45.3 percent.; duration, 42.3 per cent.; and 
pitch, 12.3 percent. The proportion, though not as large as for the 
previous class, is seen to follow the same general Order ; the extremes are 
composed of the loudness and pitch centroids. In so far as these may 
be regarded as independent sources of intensity, loudness and duration 
are each employed nearly four times as frequently as pitch. Loudness is 
slightly more prevalent than duration. 
The average length of the duration type was 0.28s, which exceeds the 
average length of the normal centroid by 0.09s. That is, it is 1.47 
times longer than the average length of the ordinary emphatic syllable 
(falling under the principle of synthesis). 
As to degrees of intensity, the following relations are sustained : 
Observations and conclusions.—A study of the two principles suggests 
the following conclusions : ( 
i. The element of loudness ranks highest in the degree of intensity 
attainable through the employment of any one element as a substitutive


Sehr geehrte Benutzer,

aufgrund der aktuellen Entwicklungen in der Webtechnologie, die im Goobi viewer verwendet wird, unterstützt die Software den von Ihnen verwendeten Browser nicht mehr.

Bitte benutzen Sie einen der folgenden Browser, um diese Seite korrekt darstellen zu können.

Vielen Dank für Ihr Verständnis.