Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Researches on the rhythm of speech. 17 
strong, half strong, weak), and three primary forms of intonation (level, 
rising, falling). 
In Swedish1 the following degrees are recognized : 4th, the principal 
accent of the acute species, e. g., the first syllable of anden (from and) ; 
3d, the principal accent of the grave species, e. g., the first syllable of 
anden (from ande) ; 2d, the strong subsidiary accent, e. g., the second 
syllable of anden (from ande)-, ist, the weak subsidiary accent, e. g., 
the first and third syllable of universitet ; and o, the weakest accent 
( “ tonlöshet ” ), e. g., the second and fourth syllables of universitet. 
No word has more than one principal accent (4th or 3d), nor more than 
one strong subsidiary (2d). 
The groups in Tables I. and II. are arranged according to the order 
of frequency of occurrence. We shall consider them separately under the 
principles which they exemplify. 
Principle of synthesis.—The several groups of Table I., which result 
from the different modes of combination of the elements, may be 
studied from two points of view : frequency of occurrence and degree of 
intensity. 
The most frequent combination is o, where loudness is slightly more 
prominent than duration and pitch. This constitutes 75.1% of all 
the groups. The next, the loudness-pitch fusion (q), where loud¬ 
ness is distinctly predominant, represents 10.7% ; the loudness-duration 
(•), 4.1% ; the duration-loudness (§), 3.9%; the pitch-loudness (§), 
2.8%; the duration-pitch (£ ), 1.8%; and the pitch-duration (5 ), 1.3%. 
The two extremes consist of the o and the ? (pitch-duration). Perhaps it 
may be justifiable to regard the former as the normal, or most natural, and 
the latter as the abnormal, or most unnatural, mode of fusion. A fact 
scarcely less striking is that the loudness-pitch (q ) combination is almost 
equal in frequency to all the others, exclusive of the o centroid. In 
respect to frequency, therefore, the element of loudness stands pre¬ 
eminent. It is present as a distinctly apprehended element in all except 
two groups of combinations. 
The following percentages, as to the degree of intensity arising from 
these fusions, obtain between the different degrees of each mode of syn¬ 
thesis : 
( i° = 86.8% 
( i° = 12.2% 
f i° =00 % 
f !° 
= 00% 
0(2° = 12. i 
(3°= i 
0 \ 2° = 39- 
g \ 2° = 56.3 
• 1 2° 
= 93-3 
(3° = 48.7 
‘ 3° =43-7 
(3° 
= 6.6 
r i° = 27.2% 
f l° = I4-3% 
f i°=oo% 
1 2° — 54-5 
• d 20 = 57 
• -j 2° =80 
( 30 = 18.2 
( 3° = 28.5 
( 30 = 20 
'Sunden, Svensk Spräklära, 14, Stockholm 1895.
        

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