Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

E. H. Tuttle, 
(a small “ 0 ”) that is defined as “ short ” in Hamilton’s notation used 
with the length-modifier, and a vowel ( “ q ” ) that is defined as ‘ ‘ long ’ ’ 
used for the short vowel of ‘not.’1 In Passy’s system the character 
“j” is used in three entirely different ways : to indicate a consonant ; 
to indicate qualitative modification of the preceding vowel ; and to indi¬ 
cate both qualitative and quantitative modification.2 
Of equal importance with typographical consistency is linguistic con¬ 
sistency. Sweet transcribes English “ long e ” as vowel + consonant, and 
then gives ‘ sea ’ as an illustration of a final long vowel.3 After criticis¬ 
ing Sweet for calling English ä and ö vowel diphthongs, but ë and oo 
vowel-consonant groups, Sievers transcribes ‘ yE ’ with a diphthong, and 
< wound ’ with a simple long vowel.4 Hempl calls w in ‘ way ’ a conso¬ 
nant, but y in ‘ yet ’ a vowel,5 although these sounds are really of the 
same general character. Some of the dictionaries6'transcribe ‘allow’ 
with two V s, although only one has been pronounced during the last ten 
or twelve centuries. Until very recently the American Dialect Society has 
used “<7as in not" along with “ô, ou as in no ” and “oi as in coin," 7 
notwithstanding the confusion that is liable to arise from such a system.8 
Consistency in the physiological basis of a transcription is also very 
desirable. When we find a fricative defined as being similar to the Ara¬ 
bic and German glottal catch, and the sounds [ot] and [«] called frica¬ 
tives, while [yz] and [75] are classed as occlusives,8 we feel tempted 
to doubt the accuracy of certain other statements made by the same 
writer. The two Italian z-sounds are often described as simultaneous 
t and s, d and 2,10 although such a combination of stoppage and non¬ 
stoppage of the air-current is physically impossible. One well-known 
sound system divides the vowels according to the assumed tongue-posi¬ 
tions into ‘ front,’ ‘ mixed ’ and ‘ back,’ and ‘ high,’ ‘ mid ’ and ‘ low ’ ; 
1 [Hamilton,] With the linguists, Herald, April 1902 (Toronto), p. 90. 
2 Exposé des principes de !association phonétique internationale, Supplément au Maître 
phonétique de novembre 1900 (Passy), p. 8, 12, 15, 18. 
3 Sweet, Primer of Phonetics, 21, 43, Oxford 1890. 
‘Sievers, as before, 163. 
5 Hempl, as before, xxx, xxvii. 
« [March,] Standard Dictionary of the English Language (Funk), New York 1895. 
[Barnum,] Webster’s International Dictionary of the English Language (Porter), 
Springfield 1901. 
I Dialect Notes, vol. i, p. 27, vol. ii, p. 190. 
8 Dialect Notes, vol. i, p. 233, 452. 
9 Araujo, Fonétika Kastellana, 24, 36, 37, Madrid 1894. 
10 D’Ovinio und Meyer, Die Italienische Sprache, Grundriss der Romanischen Philo¬ 
logie (Gröber), Iterband, 491, Strassburg 1888. 
Ellis, as before, 800.


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