Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Researches in experimental phonetics (second series)
Scripture, Edward W.
E. W. Scripture, 
Starting from the strong vibrations (third quarter of line 2), we mark 
off backward the alternate higher vibrations as the points of maximum 
for each cord puff. We thus have the vibrations in pairs ; the period of 
the cord tone at any moment will be given by the distance between two 
such marked vibrations. 
As we go towards the left, we see that each of the vibrations of a pair 
shows a tendency to split up into two minor vibrations ; this indicates the 
presence of higher cavity tones. Measurements of the periods of the 
cord tone show that it steadily rises in pitch (Plate XIV, Fig. 2). 
The alternate (or cavity) vibration keeps very closely at the middle of 
the cord period ; though in the first portion it is generally a little behind 
the middle point. This indicates a cavity tone in general an octave 
higher than the cord tone, but a little lower in the first portion. The 
details can be brought out by measurements. 
In addition to the two maxima of amplitude in line 2 there is a third 
maximum in line 3. It may be suggested that perhaps this vowel sound 
is to be considered as a triphthong. Careful listening to the gramophone 
plate enables the ear to hear two maxima clearly and the third faintly. 
The maxima are due, not to any breath emphasis, but to coincidence of 
the cavity period with a submultiple of the cord period. 1 
The word “ shroud ” occurs in “Who ’ll make his shroud? ” 
One pseudobeat for the r occurs at the flat place in line 4. The vibra¬ 
tions in line 3 and at the beginning of line 4 belong to the vowel-like 
sound in connection with which the flaps of the r occur. After the occlu¬ 
sion of the pseudobeat the tongue again allows the cord- and cavity-vi bra¬ 
dons to appear. The form of the vibration is different, indicating a 
changing adjustment of the mouth from the r position to the a position ; 
this position is to be considered as the r-a glide. There is no possibility 
of limiting the r from the a, or of marking off a distinct r-a glide ; the 
change is gradual throughout. 
The r-a glide after the flap is followed by the long record for au reach¬ 
ing to the middle of line 5. The latter part of line 5 contains the faint 
vibrations of the u-d glide, the still fainter ones of the V-occlusion, and 
the strong ones of the V-explosion. 
The curve of frequency is shown in Plate XIV, Fig. 3. During au 
the cord tone rises from 120 in frequency to hi and then falls steadily 
to 92. The diphthongized vowel au is thus of circumflex pitch. In d 
the cord tone rises to 109. 
The au is of crescendo-diminuendo intensity, the crescendo being 
gradual and the diminuendo rather sudden. 
1 Scripture, as before, 13.


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