Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

A test of safe color vision. 
/_ ax _(- yZ -(- Sv, i—ßy+yz + Sv, with numerous types of mono- 
chromasy, dichromasy and trichromasy in which several colors are com¬ 
bined in one fundamental sensation w (p. 15). 
Only a few types of color vision are at present accurately known and a 
decision concerning the three or the four color theory cannot yet be 
definitely made. 
In conclusion we may repeat that the forms of color vision are merely 
types of groups of individuals, that the members of a group vary from 
the type and that more extended examination of unusual cases would 
probably show most of the intermediate steps between the typical forms. 
In the midst of such diversités in the types of color defect it would be 
hardly safe to base any test on the supposition, that the prevailing defect 
is of any one or two types. To suppose that all essentially important 
cases of defect belong to the two types of dichromasy known as the first 
and the second would be a neglect of somewhat numerous other types. 
Such a supposition is used as the basis for the Holmgren wool test ; 
it is evident that the various forms of ‘ ‘ color weakness ’ ’ and the like 
are not provided for. Furthermore, the Holmgren test is based on the 
additional supposition that the two forms of dichromasy are “ green 
blindness” and “ red blindness ”■—-a supposition that is unquestionably 
Under these circumstances the only safe method of procedure in select¬ 
ing a test seems to lie in avoiding all suppositions while making the test 
conform as closely as possible to the conditions of actual practice. 
Characteristics of the color sense tester. 
1. The forms of color defect are so numerous and so various that a 
reliable test must be one that imitates the conditions found in the actual 
exercise of color vision. The color sense tester imitates these conditions 
2. This imitation of the practical conditions extends to the kind of 
object used, namely, colored lights under different conditions of bright¬ 
ness ; to the kind of decision required, namely, the character of the 
light ; to the kind of mental operation required, namely, a judgment 
after comparison. 
3. The colored glasses are unchanged by use or time ; the test is a 
constant one and needs no readjustment or renewal. 
4- The performance of the test requires only a few minutes. 
3. The instrument can be used in a portable form. Employees can be 
tested on shipboard or on a train. 
6. The test is absolutely automatic. The decisions of the person tested


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