Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Researches in practice and habit. 
in Fig. 11. A represents the beginning of the tone; B, the point where 
it was interrupted ; and C, the point where the interval of time from B 
to C was equal to that from A to B. The dots represent the first ten 
estimates of 1002 by the subjects A.F., R.E. and H.J. on the first day ; 
the group at the top of the figure being the estimates for A.F., the sec¬ 
ond those for R.E. and that at the bottom those for H.J. This may be 
said to represent in a general way the ability of different individuals to 
judge intervals of time without practice. 
A number of preliminary experiments demonstrated the fact already 
established by a number of investigators that the time-judgment varied 
considerably for the same interval with different individuals and with the 
same individual for different intervals. Attempts have been made to es¬ 
tablish a definite interval as that which can be estimated with the smallest 
amount of error, but the point has varied with each investigator. 
The three intervals, 82s, roo2 and 1642, were selected because they 
covered the field of most accurate estimates according to the results ob¬ 
tained by previous investigators. 
Those who served as subjects for the experiments were W.J. (Jump), 
R.E. (Evans), E.F. (Furguson) and B.B. (Brown), students in the 
Theological Seminary ; A.F. (Fisher) and C.S. (Smith), steward and 
mechanic of the Psychological Laboratory. 
Daily average estimates. 
The average estimates for successive days are given in Table XL, and 
are graphically represented in Figs. 12, 13 and 14. 
Every precaution was taken to prevent the subjects from counting or 
moving any part of the body by which they might measure off the time 
through muscular energy, the object being to ascertain whether a person 
has an actual time-sense regardless of any form of muscular activity or 
mental calculation. 
An inspection of the results for A. F. shows that there was a. constant 
decrease in the time estimate from day to day. Beginning with 88s on 
the first day, he gradually reduced the estimate during 16 days’ practice 
to 552, which is but little more than one-half of the fime to be estimated. 
The same facts were brought out in the case of R. E., whose average esti¬ 
mate of 1002 was on the first day 1592, and 1022 on the eighth day. This 
shows a decrease of about one-half in the average estimate. H. J. in¬ 
creased his average for the first day, 99s, until the third day when he 
reached his maximum point, 1162, after which the estimate decreased until 
next to the last day. The very large estimate, 1372, on the last day, no 
doubt, was due to nervousness. The record for this day should not be


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