Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

40 
M. Matsumofo, 
site the focus more strongly, in which case the sound was localized in the 
direction of the mirror. If the watch was brought nearer to the ear on its 
side, so that the direct rays of the sound would stimulate this ear more 
strongly, then the sound would be localized on the side of the watch. 
Rogdestwensky1, one of Tarchanoff’s pupils, produced sounds at 
symmetrical points, and observed that the perceived sounds were local" 
ized in the head, breast and abdomen according to the difference in the 
height of the symmetrical points. 
To exclude the function of one ear in perceiving the direction of a 
sound, Preyer- made experiments by using a telephone instead of the 
snapper sounder. The intensity of the telephone sound was weakened 
by reducing the intensity of the electric current so that by stopping the 
ears the sound could not be heard by the subject. 1 hen one ear was 
opened so that the sound was heard by that ear only. The result of the 
experiments showed that under such conditions errors occurred which 
were not observed in ordinary perception, and it was often very difficult, 
even with a strenuous attention, to get rid of these errors. These errors 
were localisations on the wrong side. 
Similar experiments were afterwards made by Arnheim3. In his 
experiments the number of correct perceptions with one ear amounted to 
only 22<]o of the total, while with both ears it amounted to 39.7% (in 
Preyer’s experiments 30%). He noticed also a decided tendency to 
locate the perceived sound on the side of the open ear. 
Schaefer,4 who had made elaborate experiments on the perception of 
the direction of sound in cooperation with Preyer, attacked a peculiar 
side of the problem at a later date, namely, the localization of beats and 
difference tones. His results may be summarized as follows. 
If the relative intensity of the primary tones is equal, then the beats 
appear to proceed from the region between the points at which the two 
tones are situated whether they are on the same or different sides of the 
median plane. The localization of the beats in the median plane when 
the primary tones of equal intensity are situated on both sides of the 
plane, is a special case’of this general fact. Schaefer thinks it clear that 
when the two forks are placed on the same side of the median plane the 
'Rogdestwensky, Ueber die Localisation der Gehörsempfindungen, Diss. 18S7. 
2 I’rEYER, Die Wahrnehmung der Schallrichtung mittelst der Bogengänge, Archiv f. 
d. ges. Physiol. (Pflüger), 18S7 XL 5SO. 
3 Arnheim, Beiträge zur Theorie von Schallempfindungcn nnttelest der Bogengänge, 
Diss., Jena 1SS7. 
4 Schaefer, Ueber die Wahrnehmung und Localisation von Schwebungen und 
Differenztönen, Zt. f. Psych, u. Physiol., 1S90 I Si.
        

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