Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

M. Matsu moto, 
observed also in persons who suffered from hard hearing of one or both 
ears. With many persons the mistakes of localization were first noticed 
when they were subjected to a special test. He ascertained also that in 
binaural audition the localization was especially defective for a sound in 
the median plane, where the source of sound was equally distant from 
the two ears. 
Thompson noticed, during his experiments on binaural hearing, an 
acoustic illusion due to the fatigue of the ear. One ear was fatigued by 
listening to a loud pure tone, and then the listener tried to estimate the 
direction of a sound of the same pitch. If his left ear were fatigued he 
would invariably imagine the source of the sound to be further to the 
right than it really was, and likewise the reverse. The illusory displace¬ 
ment in the direction of the sound was greater as the fatigue was more 
complete. But as the sounds of different pitch have to stimulate differ¬ 
ent fibres of the basilar membrane of the cochlea, it would be expected 
that the fatigue produced by a sound of a certain pitch would have no ef¬ 
fect on the perception of a sound of another pitch. According to Thomp¬ 
son’s experiments, when one ear was fatigued with a c" fork no illusory 
displacement was perceived in an a" fork. 
Tarchanofk 1 found that when telephones were held opposite the ears 
and intermittent currents were sent through them, the perceived sound 
was localized in the median plane and that it was perceived outside the 
plane when there was the slightest difference between the intensities of 
of the two sounds. 
Urbantschitsch 2 found that when one and the same sound of a certain 
intensity was led into the two ears separately by means of a T tube, one 
group of his observers perceived the sounds as being in the right and left 
ears with equal intensities, whereas another group perceived the sounds in 
the right and the left temporal regions of the head. When the intensity 
increased, these two sounds seemed to expand and approached nearer 
to the middle of the head, being finally brought into fusion at a 
sufficient intensity. Sometimes besides the two sounds a third sound 
was observed in the center of the head ; the latter was perceived after 
repeated experiments or only when the observers paid special attention 
to it. A large proportion of the observers, when very attentive, per¬ 
ceived the sound—not in the ears but in the interior of the head. 
Finally, there were some observers by whom the sound was not gener¬ 
ally located in the head, but projected in front, to the back, or above. 
1 Tarchanoff, St. Petersburger med. Wochenschrift, 1S78, No. 43. 
2 Urbantschitsch, Zur Lehre von der Schaltcmpfindung, Archiv f. d. ges. Physiol. 
(Pflüger), 1SS1 XXIV 574.


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