# Volltext: Weber's Law in Illusions (4)

```Weber’s law in illusions.
65
lhe necessity of retaining the same standard throughout the entire ex¬
periment was urged upon each observer. The standard of sureness can
be seen to some extent in the individual records by comparing the num¬
ber of errors with the size of the increments. E shows the number of
actual errors in comparison with the number of possible errors, or the
total number of judgments that were made. The comparatively small
number of errors in B may be accounted for partially by the favor¬
able position of B in the order of trials. The ^-trials in C were often
disturbed by their proximity to the illusion-trials, and A was subject
to still more disturbance because of its position as the extreme first
and last trials. I call these so-called wrong judgments “errors” in a
different sense from that in which the illusions are called errors. The
illusions are normal, but what is here called an error is not based upon
any such constant factor that is known.
The variation is apparently large, but it must be remembered that it
is the individual variation of twenty different observers from their average
and that the number of trials on each observer is small. The general
agreement of so many is worth more than the consistency of one in a
larger number of trials. If we consider the uniformity of the conditions
of the observers, subjective as well as objective, we find ourselves justi¬
fied in taking the averages of these twenty (in all, forty complete deter¬
minations on each point) as a fair expression of the answer to the two
original questions.
Does Weber’s law depend upon the real or upon the apparent weights ?
If upon the apparent, is there any traceable law ? In the present case A
is overestimated by 15.8s and seems to weigh 95.8s in terms of C which
we assume as a standard and common measure. According to that aphysi-
cal change of, e. g., 3.3s in A will appear as a change of
95^
80
X 3.3 = 4-o.
On the other hand B is underestimated by 12.1s and appears to weigh
67-9“ in terms of C. Then a physical change of the same amount, 3.3s,
in B will appear as a change of -J— X 3.3=2.8. There is a coincidence
OO
between this theoretical consideration and the above results, but we must
seek other relations in the results in order to get a more direct answer.
The ratios for the relation between the respective thresholds and the
standard for these particular conditions are :
JB=?\, J C = and JA =
5
```

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