Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

The Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology, vol. 2: Dia-Ins
Todd, Robert Bentley
designation adopted by Chaussier, which, 
while it recognises the identity of the vessel 
throughout its course, sufficiently marks the 
grounds of distinction between its two portions. 
The external is somewhat smaller than the 
primitive iliac, but in the adult considerably 
larger than the internal ; its direction is down¬ 
ward, outward, and forward, and hence it 
forms with the primitive iliac a curve convex 
backward, and seems the continuation of that 
vessel; its length is from three to four inches, 
and during its course it forms one or more 
Such is the disposition of the vessel in the 
adult; butin the younger subject it is different 
in some respects ; in the foetus the external iliac 
is considerably smaller than the internal, and 
does not seem the continuation of the primitive 
iliac, which at that epoch is continued into the 
internal; the external appearing rather as a 
branch or a smaller division from a trunk 
common to the othef two : after birth the 
relative disposition of the iliacs gradually 
changes, until they acquire that of the adult. 
The relations of the external iliac artery are 
as follows : posteriorly, it corresponds through 
the upper half of its course to the lateral part 
of the superior aperture of the pelvis ; inclining 
outwards as it descends, it corresponds in its 
lower half to the os innominatum, and the more 
perfectly, the nearer it approaches the crural 
arch, at which part it is placed in front of the 
bone, crossing it nearly at right angles, and 
separated from it by an interval occupied by 
thepsoo-iliac aponeurosis and the psoas muscle. 
At its outset the external iliac vein is directly 
behind the artery, and on its right side, also 
the commencement of the primitive iliac vein, 
the artery crossing the junction of the two 
vessels, on that side, obliquely in its descent ; 
during the remainder of its course, the vein, 
though posterior to it, is also internal ; through¬ 
out the lower half of its course it lies upon 
the psoo-iliac aponeurosis, supported by the os 
innominatum, and at first separated from the 
bone only by the aponeurosis ; but as it pro¬ 
ceeds separated from it also by the tendon of the 
psoas parvus when present, and by the inner mar¬ 
gin of the psoas magnus, it is very near to the os 
innominatum, external to the ilio-pectineal emi¬ 
nence, and being here supported by bone, and 
made steady by its connections it may with 
certainty be compressed and its circulation 
perfectly commanded. Internally, the artery 
corresponds above to the aperture of the pelvis, 
to its viscera more or less intimately, according 
to their state of distension or contraction, and 
also to the small intestines which descend into 
it; in the lower half of its course, the external 
iliac vein, which at its outset is behind or 
beneath the artery, is internal, though still some¬ 
what posterior to it ;at the crural arch the artery 
and vein are nearly upon the same level, being 
supported by the os innominatum ; the artery 
however somewhat anterior to the vein, but 
as the vein recedes from the arch it inclines 
less inward than the artery, and at the same 
time retreats more from the surface ; and hence 
it gradually gets more completely behind the j 
artery until at its junction with the primitive * 
vein it is concealed by it anteriorly. 
The artery is covered by peritoneum, upon ’i 
its inner side through a considerable part of its jB 
course ; above the membrane covers it com- k 
pletely ; but as it descends the extent becomes If 
less in consequence of the ascent of the vein ; ,■ 
which thus gradually intervenes between the j| 
artery and the membrane, and removes the jl 
latter from it altogether in the lower part of its jl 
course. When the primitive iliac divides at a u| 
high point, the ureter descends into the pelvis iLj 
internal to the external iliac immediately after \H 
its origin ; this occurs more frequently upon the | 
right side than the left. Beneath the perito¬ 
neum the artery is covered by an investment, of I 
which presently again, attaching it superiorly ; 
to the peritoneum and inferiorly to the vein. 
Externally the artery corresponds through its 
entire course to the psoas magnus muscle, but 
it is separated from it by the psoo-iliac fascia, to 
which it is connected by its immediate invest¬ 
ment ; the relation of the artery and the 
muscle are, however, somewhat different at the J 
upper and lower parts of the vessel’s course; } 
above, the artery does not lie upon the muscle, 
but rests against its inner side along its anterior 
part, while inferiorly it lies upon the inner 
margin of the muscle at the same time that it 
rests against it externally. 
The genito-crural nerve is situate along the 
outer side of the artery ; this nerve, long and 
slender,a branch of the lumbar plexus, descends 
upon the psoas, extenal to the artery, and at 
first at a little distance from it ; as it proceeds, it 
approaches thevessel, andliesclose to itenveloped i 
in the fascia propria; at the lower part of its course 
its genital branch frequently passes in front 
of the artery. The anterior crural vein is also 
external to the artery ; but it is considerably 
posterior to it, separated from it by the outer 
margin of the psoas, between which and the 
iliacus it lies, and also by the fascia iliaca, which 
covers it ; the nerve is about half an inch from 
the artery at the crural arch ; as it recedes from 
the arch the distance increases. 
In front, the artery is covered immediately 
by a cellular investment, formed by the sub- 
peritoneal cellular structure—the fascia propria 
—upon the posterior wall of the iliac fossa; 
this encloses both the artery and the vein and at 
the same time connects them ; it varies in its 
condition according to the subject, in some it 
appears a dense, but still cellular expansion, in 
others from the deposition of fat it forms 
an adipose stratum, which however still presents 
a more condensed character in immediate con¬ 
tact with the vessels ; it adheres closely to the 
surface of the fascia iliaca upon either side of 
the vessels and thus attaches them to it ; it is 
prolonged upward upon the primitive iliac 
vessels, and below, it ascends between the 
peritoneum and the fascia transversalis upon 
the anterior abdominal wall ; upon the primi¬ 
tive iliac it is very thin and proportionally 
weak ; but as it descends it increases in thick¬ 
ness and strength until at the lower part of the


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