Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

The Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology, vol. 2: Dia-Ins
Todd, Robert Bentley
The perineal artery comes through the obtu¬ 
rator fascia, and descends to the perineum, pos¬ 
terior to the transverse muscle, though at times 
before it ; w hen it has got below the muscle it 
changes its direction, and runs forward, up¬ 
ward, and inward, superficial to the triangular 
ligament, toward the root of the scrotum ; at 
this part of its course it is situate along the 
outer side of the interval which separates the 
crus penis and the corpus spongiosum urethræ, 
internal and parallel to the crus, and covered 
by a superficial lamina of the fascia of the peri¬ 
neum, a deeper layer of which intervenes be¬ 
tween it and the muscles of the crus and bulb 
and the triangular ligament; as it proceeds it 
gives the following branches : 1. outward, one 
to the integument and subcutaneous structure 
beneath the anterior part of the tuberosity of 
the ischium ; 2. inward, one which runs to the 
interval between the front of the rectum and 
the bulb of the corpus spongiosum, superficial 
and parallel to the transverse muscle ; it sup¬ 
plies the integument and subcutaneous struc¬ 
ture of the perineum, and the common inser¬ 
tion of the superficial sphincter, the transverse 
muscle, the bulbo-cavernous and the levator ani 
in front of the rectum. This branch is at times 
furnished by the pudic itself ; it is denominated 
by some “ the proper perineal,” by others “ the 
transverse perineal.” 3. A branch to the bulbo¬ 
cavernous ; 4. one to the ischio-cavernous mus¬ 
The perineal artery having reached the back 
of the scrotum sends long branches into the 
subcutaneous structure and integument of that 
part, and entering the septum scroti, terminates 
in it as the “ artery of the septum.” In the 
female, the ultimate branches of the artery are 
distributed to the labia majora. 
The perineal artery, from its superficial situa¬ 
tion, is exposed to be divided on many occa¬ 
sions ; in lateral lithotomy it may be cut, but 
for the most part it escapes, its course being 
external to the line of incision ; some of its 
branches, however, cannot escape, the trans¬ 
verse perineal particularly must, as a matter of 
course, be divided. Having given off the peri¬ 
neal artery, the pudic pursues its course, en¬ 
closed in the triangular ligament, along the 
rami of the ischium and pubis, toward the arch 
of the pubis ; arrived under cover of the crus 
penis, it gives off a considerable branch, des¬ 
tined principally for the urethra and the corpus 
spongiosum, and denominated hence by Chaus- 
sier “ urethro-bulbaire,” by Harrison “ arteria 
corporis bulbosi vel spongiosi urethræ,” but by 
Boyer and Cloquet “ artère transverse it is 
short, runs transversely inward, enclosed in the 
triangular ligament about a quarter of an inch 
from its base, but nearer to it externally than 
internally; at the bulb it divides into two 
parts, of which one, the smaller, is distributed 
to the ante-prostatic gland ; the other enters the 
bulb and ramifies through its vascular struc¬ 
ture, being prolonged through it as far as the 
glans, supplying at the same time the mem¬ 
brane of the urethra and its lacunae ; a branch 
from it passes into the corpus cavernosum, and 
anastomoses with the artery of that structure. 
In the female, the branch corresponding to this 
is distributed to the vascular plexus which sur¬ 
rounds the orifice of the vagina. 
The artery of the bulb is one of much prac¬ 
tical importance ; it is liable to be wounded in 
lithotomy in the act of opening the urethra; 
this accident is incurred when the canal is 
opened too high, i. e. too near to the arch of 
the pubis, or too much from the side rather 
than from beneath, and in either case is pretty 
certain to occur ; the proceeding by which to 
avoid both the artery and the bulb itself, is to 
cut into the urethra as far back, i. e. from the 
surface, and as far from the arch as the gui¬ 
dance of the staff will assure the operator to be 
safe, the point of 'the knife being directed as 
much from below as the interference of the 
bulb and the lateral line of incision will permit; 
further, it is the design of the operator to open 
the canal in the membranous portion and be¬ 
hind the bulb ; and in order to effect this, the 
incision should be made as near as may be to 
the base of the triangular ligament, or, if possi¬ 
ble, behind it. If divided, the artery of the 
bulb may be tied, though not without some J 
difficulty ; it is prevented from retracting by 
being enclosed in the triangular ligament, but 
it is situate deep ; its distance from the anterior 
surface of the ramus of the pubis being about 
three-fourths of an inch ; its shortness as well 
as its being concealed by the crus penis and 
by the bulb with their muscles, and being in 
the superior angle of the wound, must also 
increase the difficulty of securing it. 
The pudic artery having reached the base of 
the subpubic ligament divides into its two 
final branches, the artery of the corpus cavemo- , 
sum and the dorsal artery of the penis. 
3. The artery of the corpus cavernosum arises 
from the pudic between the crus penis and the 
ramus of the pubis and immediately enters the 
crus obliquely ; it is prolonged through the 
vascular tissue of the corpus cavernosum to its 
extremity, distributing branches to either side, 
and communicating with that of the other. 
For the peculiar distribution of the arteries of 
the corpus cavernosum and spongiosum,accord¬ 
ing to Müller, see the article Erectile Tissue. 
4. The dorsal artery of the penis, which ap¬ 
pears in direction the continuation of the original 
vessel, comes through the triangular ligament 
and ascends in front of the subpubic ligament 
through the angle formed by the crura penis at 
their junction ; having surmounted the crus it 
attaches itself to the dorsal aspect of the penis 
and runs forward upon it on either side of the 
suspensory ligament parallel to the artery of 
the other side, and contained together with it, 
the dorsal vein, and nerves, in the groove 
formed by the apposition of the crura, internal 
to the nerve and external to the vein ; it is 
prolonged to the anterior extremity of the 
corpus cavernosum, where it breaks up into 
branches, which uniting with those of the other 
form an arterial zone behind the corona glandis, 
and sinking into the glans are distributed to its 
During their course along the.dorsum of the 
penis the arteries are tortuous, communicate


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