Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

The Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology, vol. 2: Dia-Ins
Todd, Robert Bentley
Such are the phenomena in animals in which 
the heart has not the faculty of taking on an 
augmented state of irritability, with this lessened 
degree of stimulus. But in those animals which 
do possess this faculty, a property which con¬ 
stitutes the power of hibernation, the heart con¬ 
tinues the circulation of the blood, more slowly 
indeed, but not less perfectly, although its arte¬ 
rial character be diminished and its stimulant 
property impaired. No repletion of the pul¬ 
monary veins and of the left auricle, no sense 
of oppression is induced, and the animal is not 
roused ; the respiration continues low, the tem¬ 
perature falls, and the animal can bear, for a 
short period, the abstraction of atmospheric air. 
All the phenomena of hibernation originate, 
then, in the susceptibility of augmented irritabi¬ 
lity. The state of sleep, which may be viewed 
as the first stage of hibernation, induces an im¬ 
paired degree of respiration. This would soon 
be attended with pain, if the irritability of the 
heart were not at the same time augmented, so 
as to carry on the circulation of a less arterial 
blood, and the animal would draw a deep sigh 
•—would augment its respiration or awake. 
Occasional sighs are, indeed, observed in the 
sleep of all animals, except the hibernating. In 
these, the circulation goes on uninterruptedly, 
with a diminished respiration, by the means of 
an augmented irritability. There is no stagna¬ 
tion of the blood at the heart; consequently, no 
uneasiness; and the animal becomes more and 
more lethargic, as the circulation of a venous 
blood is more complete. This lethargy is even¬ 
tually interrupted by circumstances which break 
ordinary sleep, as external stimuli or the calls 
of appetite. 
It still remains for me briefly to discuss the 
question,—what are the hibernating animals? 
I must first advert to the fact, on which I have 
already insisted, that hibernation does not pre¬ 
sent itself in an equal degree in all the hiber¬ 
nating tribes. All animals sleep periodically, 
in the night or in the day. Some sleep for 
several days together, especially after taking 
food, and in the cool seasons of the year, as the 
hedgehog. Perhaps the bat may be the only 
animal which sleeps profoundly the winter 
through, without awaking to take food. 
These remarks prepare us for a more just 
view of hibernation and of hibernating animals 
than is, as I believe, usually taken. 
Of the hibernating animals the most unequi¬ 
vocal are the bat, the hedgehog, the marmot, 
the hamster, the dormouse. It has been said 
that the bear and beaver belong to the num¬ 
ber, but this is extremely doubtful. It has 
been said also that the swallow belongs to the 
hibernating class, but this is incorrect. The 
cold-blooded animals, the Chelonian, the Sau¬ 
rian, ihe Ophidian, and the Batrachian tribes, 
all, however, indubitably pass the winter in a 
state of apathy and lethargy. Some of the 
fishes also become lethargic during the cold 
season. The same remark applies to some of 
the molluscous and insect tribes. 
BIBLIOGRAPHY.—Hunter, An.(Economy, Owen’s 
edition, p. 131. Lond. 1837. Spallanzani, Mém. 
sur la Respiration, par Senebier. Genev. 1803 ; 
or Eng. translat. Edinb. 1804. Be Saissy, Re¬ 
cherches exp. sur les Anim. Hivernans., Lyons,1808. 
Mangili, Essai sur la Léthargie périodique. Milan, 
1807. Edwards, sur les Agens Physiques. Paris, 
1824, or Dr. Hodgkin’s English transi. Prunelle, 
Recherches sur les phénom. et sur les causes du 
sommeil hivernal. Ann. du Mus. t. xviii. Berthold, 
Miiller’s Archiv. 1837, p. 67. Miiller’s Physiology, 
( Marshall Hall.) 
OF (in human anatomy).—Fr. articulation 
ilio-femorale ; Germ. Huft gelenk.—This joint 
belongs to the class of enarthrodial or ball and 
socket joints, being formed by the adaptation 
of the head of the femur to the acetabulum of 
the os innominatum. These bones are con¬ 
nected by a very powerful capsular ligament, 
which again is completely covered by strong 
and thick muscles, under the influence of which 
the various motions of the joint are performed. 
We propose to examine seriatim the several 
textures entering into the formation of this 
joint, and lastly to consider the motions of 
which it is susceptible. 
The hones.—Of the two bones which in the 
adult enter into the formation of this joint, the 
os innominatum contributes by the acetabulum, 
and the femur by its head. 
The acetabulum (cotyloid cavity : Germ, die 
Pfanne) is the cup or socket which receives the 
head of the femur, and is admitted to be the 
deepest articular cavity in the body. Prior to 
the adult period of life this cavity serves as 
the centre of union for the three bones of 
which the os innominatum is formed, viz., the 
ilium, ischium, and pubis. These, however, 
do not enter equally into the acetabulum, inas¬ 
much as the ischium contributes in the pro¬ 
portion of rather more than two-fifths, the ilium 
of about two-fifths, whilst the pubis yields ra¬ 
ther less than one-fifth. 
Although the acetabulum is situated nearly 
in the centre of the separated os innominatum, 
it has a different position in relation to the 
entire pelvis. The union of the ossa innomi- 
nata at the symphysis pubis, and the comple¬ 
tion of the pelvis by the addition of the sacrum 
posteriorly, place the acetabular cavities on 
either side upon the antero-extemal aspect of 
the pelvis, so that a line drawn horizontally 
from the one to the other would pass through 
the union of the anterior with the two posterior 
thirds of the antero-posterior diameter of the 
pelvis. The aspect of each acetabulum is out¬ 
wards and very slightly forwards as well as 
Each cavity is surrounded for about four- 
fifths of its circumference by a sharp but strong 
lip or margin (supercilium acetabuli), leaving 
opposite the obturator foramen a notch of 
considerable extent Cincisura acetabuli) di¬ 
rected from without downwards, forwards, and 
inwards, the deepest part of which is smooth 
and gives passage to nerves and vessels. This 
notch corresponds to the junction of the pubis 
and ischium ; and we may here observe that 
the margin of the acetabulum exhibits a slight


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