Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Titel:
The Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology, vol. 2: Dia-Ins
Person:
Todd, Robert Bentley
PURL:
https://digitalesammlungen.uni-weimar.de/viewer/image/lit25760/727/
HERMAPHRODITISM. 
719 
the os pubis resembled the mons veneris ; and 
in addition he was weak in his intellect, and 
deficient in bodily strength. The external 
genital organs shewed him to be a male, but 
the penis was unusually small, as well as short, 
and not liable to erections; the testicles were 
not larger in size than they commonly are in 
the foetal state ; and he had never felt any pas¬ 
sion for the opposite sex. 
The following cases by the same author 
strongly illustrate this subject.* In a family of 
three children residing near Modbury in De¬ 
vonshire, the second, a daughter, was a well- 
formed female, the eldest and youngest were 
both malformed males. The eldest was thir¬ 
teen years of age. His mons veneris was 
loaded with fat ; no penis could be said to be 
present, but there was a præputium a sixth of 
an inch long, and under it the meatus urina- 
rius, but no vagina. There was an imperfect 
scrotum with a smooth surface, there being no 
raphe in the middle, but, in its place, an in¬ 
dented line ; it contained two testicles, of the 
size that they are met with in the foetus. His 
breasts were as large as those of a fat woman. 
He was four feet high, and of an uncommon 
bulk, his body round the waist being equal to 
that of a fat man, and his thighs and legs in 
proportion. He was very dull and heavy, and 
almost an idiot, but could walk and talk ; he 
began to walk when a year and a half old. 
The younger brother was six years old, and 
uncommonly fat and large for his age. He 
was more an idiot than the other, not having 
sense enough to learn to walk although his 
limbs were not defective. 
A case in a similar manner confirmatory 
of the preceding remarks is mentioned by Itard 
de Riez.f A young man, aged twenty-three, 
had no testes in the scrotum, a very small penis, 
not capable of erection, and a divided scrotum. 
He was in stature below the middle size. His 
skin was soft, smooth, and entirely free from 
hair, the place of the beard being supplied by 
a slight down. The voice was hoarse; the 
muscles were not well marked ; the form of the 
chest resembled that of the female, and the 
pelvis was extremely broad and large. The 
intellectual faculties were very dull, and the 
sexual appetite was entirely wanting. 
Renauldin, also, in the same work,}; has re¬ 
corded another case in point. In a soldier of 
twenty-four years of age, whose genital organs 
were extremely undeveloped, his penis being 
only of the size of a small tubercle, and his 
testicles not larger than small nuts, the pelvis 
was broad; the chest narrow; the face and 
body in general were not covered with hair, 
with die exception of a small quantity upon 
the pubis; the voice was feminine, and the 
mammary glands were as perfectly developed 
as in the adult female. The body of this in¬ 
dividual was rather lean than otherwise. The 
* lb. p. 320-21. 
t Mémoires de la Société Méd. d’Emulation, 
tom. iii. p. 293-5. 
t Tom. i. p. 241. 
mammæ had begun to enlarge when his body 
attained to its full stature at sixteen years of 
age. He had all the habits and sexual desires 
of the male sex. 
In quadrupeds as in man, when the tes¬ 
ticles or ovaries are imperfectly formed, the 
secondary sexual peculiarities are frequently 
so defectively evolved as to offer a kind of her¬ 
maphroditic or neutral type in the general con¬ 
figuration and characters of the animal. Thus, 
the free-martin does not present an exact 
analogy in form either with the bull or cow,, 
but exhibits a set of characters intermediate 
between both, and more nearly resembling 
those of the ox and of the spayed heifer. In 
size it resembles the castrated male and spayed 
female, being considerably larger than either 
the bull or the cow, and having horns very 
similar to those of the ox. Its bellow is simi¬ 
lar to that of the ox, being more analogous 
to that of the cow than of the bull. Its flesh,, 
like that of the ox and spayed heifer, is gene¬ 
rally much finer in its fibre than the flesh of 
either the bull or cow, and is supposed to 
exceed even that of the ox and heifer in deli¬ 
cacy of flavour.* 
The consideration of the various facts that 
we have now stated inclines us to believe that 
the natural history characters of any species 
of animal are certainly not to be sought for 
solely either in the system of the male or in 
that of the female ; but, as Mr. Hunter pointed 
out, they are to be found in those properties, 
that are common to both sexes, and which we 
have occasionally seen combined together by 
nature upon the bodies of an unnatural her¬ 
maphrodite; or evolved from the interference 
of art, upon a castrated male or spayed female. 
In assuming at the age of puberty the distinc¬ 
tive secondary peculiarities of his sex, the 
male, as far as regards these secondary pecu¬ 
liarities, evidently passes into a higher degree 
of development than the female, and leaves 
her more in possession of those characters that 
are common to the young of both sexes, and 
which he himself never loses, when his tes¬ 
ticles are early removed. These and other 
facts connected with the evolution of both the 
primary and secondary peculiarities of the1 
sexes further appear to us to shew that, phy¬ 
siologically at least, we ought to consider the 
male type of organization to be the more per¬ 
fect as respects the individual, and the female 
the more perfect as respects the species. 
Hence we find that, when females are mal¬ 
formed in the sexual parts so as to resemble 
the male, the malformation is almost always 
one of excessive development, as enlargement 
of the clitoris, union of the labia, &c. ; and, 
on the other hand, when the male organs are 
malformed in such a manner as to simulate the 
female, the abnormal appearance is generally 
capable of being traced to a defect of deve¬ 
lopment, such as the want of closure of the 
perinæal fissure, and of the inferior part of the 
urethra, diminutive size of the penis, retention 
* Hunter’s Obs. on the An. Econ. p. 60.
        

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