Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Titel:
The Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology, vol. 2: Dia-Ins
Person:
Todd, Robert Bentley
PURL:
https://digitalesammlungen.uni-weimar.de/viewer/image/lit25760/720/
HERMAPHRODITISM. 
712 
both sides of the body. With this arrange¬ 
ment, other malformations by duplicity of the 
sexual organs are generally combined ; but 
these are so various in their character as not 
easily to admit of any useful generalization. 
In considering this third division of complex 
hermaphroditism, we shall mention, first, the 
cases in which two testicles and one ovary are 
stated to have co-existed ; and secondly, those 
in which there have been supposed to be pre¬ 
sent two testicles and two ovaries. 
Two testicles and one ovary.—The two dis¬ 
sections that we have previously detailed of 
lateral hermaphroditic insects, ('see Lateral 
Hermaphroditism, p. 696,) shew that in these 
two cases this variety of sexual duplicity existed. 
It appears to have been observed also in two 
instances of hermaphroditic malformation in 
the quadruped, the histories of which have 
been described by Mascagni and Mayer. 
In a bull, nine years of age, and which 
was provided with the usual external organs of 
the male, Mascagni found internally, on dis¬ 
section, a prostrate gland and two perfect 
vesiculæ séminales, vasa deferentia, epidi- 
dymes, and testicles. The testicles and epi- 
didymes were injected with mercury through 
the vasa deferentia. In addition there was dis¬ 
covered near the left testicle, and connected to 
it by peritonæum and bloodvessels, a body 
having the structure of the female ovary ; and, 
in its normal situation, there existed a distended 
double uterus, containing from fifteen to sixteen 
pounds of a clear fluid. This uterus was 
furnished with two Fallopian tubes at its upper 
part, and terminated inferiorly in a vagina, 
which opened by a small orifice into the male 
urethra.* 
In a goat dissected by Mayer,j* he found 
two testes with their epididymes fully developed, 
and vasa deferentia and vesiculæ séminales. 
One of the testes was placed without and the 
other still remained within the abdominal cavity. 
At the same time there were present a large fe¬ 
male vagina communicating with the urethra, 
and a double-horned uterus provided with two 
Fallopian tubes. One of these tubes terminated 
in a blind canal, but the other had placed at 
its abdominal extremity several vesicles, resem¬ 
bling, according to Mayer, Graafian vesicles, 
or an imperfect ovary. The vesiculæ séminales 
and (through regurgitation by the urethra and 
ejaculatory ducts) the cavities of the vagina 
and uterus, were filled with about four ounces 
of a whitish fluid, having the colour and odour 
of male semen. This fluid could not be found 
by the microscope to contain any seminal ani¬ 
malcules, but only simple and double Monades 
( Monades termones et guttulas). Bergmann, 
however, is alleged to have found it, on 
analysis, to contain the same chemical principle 
that characterizes human male semen. 
Two testicles and two ovaries.—Various in¬ 
stances have now been published in which this 
sexual duplicity has been supposed to exist 
* Atti dell’ Acad, delle Scienze di Siena, t. viii. 
p. 201. 
f leones, p. 20. 
among cattle and other domestic quadrupeds, 
as well as in the human subject. 
One of the free-martins* described by 
Mr. Hunter comes under this variety. In the 
case referred to, in the situation of the ovaries 
“ were placed,” to use Mr. Hunter’s words, 
“ both the ovaria and testicles,”—or, as Sir 
Everard Home, in alluding to this case, more 
justly expresses it, “ an appearance like both 
testicles and ovaria was met with close toge- 
ther.”f The two contiguous bodies were nearly 
of the same size, being each about as large as 
a small nutmeg. There were no Fallopian 
tubes running to the ovaries, but a horn of 
an imperfect uterus passed on to them on each 
side along the broad ligament. Pervious vasa 
deferentia were found ; they did not, however, 
reach up completely to the testicle on either 
side, or form epididymes. The vesiculæ sémi¬ 
nales were present, and much smaller than in 
the perfect bull. The external parts appear to 
have been those of the cow, but smaller than 
natural. The vagina passed on, as in the cow, 
to the opening of the urethra, and, after having 
received it and the orifices of the seminal ducts, 
it began to contract into a small canal, which 
ran upwards through the uterus to the place of 
division of that organ into its two horns. 
Velpeau,J in his work on Midwifery, men¬ 
tions that in an embryo calf, he had “ found 
reunited the testicles and ovaries, the vasa 
deferentia, and uterus.” 
In an hermaphroditic foal-ass, Mr. Hunter§ 
found both what he considered to be two ovaries 
placed in the natural situation of these bodies, 
and two testicles lying in the inguinal rings in 
a process or theca of peritonaeum similar to 
the tunica vaginalis communis in the male ass. 
No vasa deferentia or Fallopian tubes could be 
detected ; but there was a double-horned 
uterus present, and from its broad ligaments, 
(to the edges of which the cornua uteri and 
ovaries were attached,) there passed down on 
either side into the inguinal rings a part similar 
to the round ligament in the female. The 
horns and fundus of the uterus were pervious ; 
but its body and cervix, and the canal of the 
vagina from above the opening of the urethra 
into it, were imperforate. The external parts 
were similar to those of the female ass ; but 
the clitoris, which was placed within the 
entrance of the vagina, was much larger than 
that of a perfectly formed female ; it measured 
about five inches. The animal had two 
nipples. 
Scnba has given an account|| of an herma¬ 
phroditic sheep, in which two large testicles 
are stated to have been found in the scrotum, 
at the same time that there existed, in their nor¬ 
mal situation, two moderately sized ovaries, 
and a small uterus furnished with two appa¬ 
rently closed Fallopian tubes. The external 
sexual parts appear to have been those of a 
* An. Econ. p. 63-64, pi. ix. 
f Comp. Anat. vol. iii. p. 322. 
j Traité de l’Art des Accouchemens, t. i. p. 114. 
6 An. hlcon. p. 58. 
|| Schriften dtr Gesellschaft Naturforschender 
Freude zu Berlin, Bd. x. s. 367.
        

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