Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

The Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology, vol. 2: Dia-Ins
Todd, Robert Bentley
one of the muscular septa previously referred to. 
At the lower part of the upper third of the fore¬ 
arm their separation is complete. The flexor 
? carpi radialis first changes its muscular fibres 
■ • for tendinous on its anterior face, and a rounded 
tendon is the result at the upper part of the 
i lower third of the arm. This tendon passes in 
front of the wrist-joint and through a groove in 
the os trapezium, is ultimately inserted into the 
I base of the metacarpal bone supporting the 
This muscle has on its outer edge, in the 
superior third of the fore-arm, the pronator 
radii teres, in the two inferior thirds the supi¬ 
nator radii longus ; the palmaris longus to its 
inner edge, both at its origin and throughout 
its whole course in the fore-arm. Anterior to 
it there is simply the fascia, its posterior face 
is in contact with the superficial flexor of the 
fingers above and the long flexor of the thumb 
below. The tendon of this muscle projects 
\ distinctly through the skin at the lower part of 
the arm. 
The flexor carpi radialis, besides flexing the 
whole hand on the fore-arm, bends the second 
row of carpal bones upon the first. It will also 
I act as an abductor of the hand, in consequence 
of its being fixed on the outer side of the hand 
in the pulley-like groove of the trapezium 
through which it passes. It slightly assists the 
pronator muscles in their influence over the hand. 
3. The palmaris longus, Soëmm., epitrochlo- 
l palmaire, Chauss. The origin of this muscle, 
which is in common with the other flexors, is 
r from the inner condyle, also from a tendinous 
intermuscular septum which separates it from 
the flexor carpi radialis on the outer side and 
the flexor communis digitorum on the inner. 
. This muscle, the smallest of those situated in 
I the fore-arm, becomes tendinous midway be¬ 
tween the elbow and wrist-joint. This tendon, 
which is narrow and slender, descends to the 
annular ligament, and is ultimately connected 
with the palmar fascia. This fascia has some- 
L times been considered as a mere expansion of 
the tendon of the palmaris longus, but as the 
muscle is occasionally wanting and the fascia 
I never, we regard it rather as another instance 
of that useful connexion of muscles with fasciæ 
which we have already had occasion to admire. 
This muscle, except at its origin where it has 
I the flexor carpi radialis to its inner side and the 
flexor communis to the outer, maintains a posi¬ 
tion completely superficial to the other muscles, 
its posterior face lying upon the flexor communis 
This muscle flexes the hand, and makes 
! tense the palmar fascia and annular ligament, 
s and thus takes off from the palmar vessels and 
f nerves and the tendons of the digital flexors the 
: pressure to which they are exposed when the 
hand grasps a solid body firmly; as, for in- 
II . stance, when the whole weight of the body is 
I“; sustained, as in the case of the sailor climbing 
the rigging of a vessel, by the power of the 
flexors of the fingers and hand. 
4. Flexor communis digitorum sublimis per- 
ifS for at us. ( Musculus perforatus, Soëmm., epi- 
trochlo-phalanginien commun, Chauss.) This 
muscle also arises from the inner condyle in 
common with the other muscles, and from a 
strong tendinous septum separating it from the 
flexor carpi ulnaris. About the middle of the 
fore-arm this portion of the muscle is joined by 
muscular fibres which arise from the radius im¬ 
mediately below the insertion of the supinator 
radii brevis, and on the inner side of the pro¬ 
nator radii teres. Between these two origins 
of the flexor communis digitorum is placed the 
median nerve. The tendinous fibres, into which 
the muscle is gradually transformed, become 
first apparent on the anterior surface, and next 
being collected ultimately split into four cords, 
which passing behind the annular ligament of 
the wrist, enter the palm of the hand ; oppo¬ 
site the first phalanx of the four fingers these 
cords, splitting into two portions and allowing 
the passage of the deep flexors, terminate by 
being inserted in the rough edge on the sides 
of the second phalanges. The tendons of this 
muscle as well as the deep flexor are bound 
down to the phalanges by smooth tendinous 
sheaths or thecæ which are dense and firm be¬ 
tween the articulations, but insensibly disap¬ 
pearing opposite the joint, where their presence 
would interfere with the motion of the parts ; 
they are lined by synovial membrane to prevent 
unnecessary friction. 
Although the lateral width of this muscle is 
considerable, only a very narrow edge is in 
contact with the fascia, the remainder being 
covered by the last-mentioned muscles, so that 
some anatomists have described it as constitu¬ 
ting a middle layer. 
On the internal edge is placed the flexor 
carpi ulnaris, which maintains the same relative 
position to it throughout the fore-arm. In 
contact with its posterior face we have the 
flexor digitorum profundus, the flexor longus 
pollicis, and the ulnar artery, vein, and nerve. 
This muscle flexes the second phalanx on 
the first, and the first on the metacarpus, and 
the whole hand on the fore-arm. 
5. Flexor carpi ulnaris, (musculus ulnaris 
internus, Soëmm, cubital interne, Portal, cu- 
bito-carpien, Chauss.) This muscle arises from 
the internal extremity of the internal condyle 
of the humerus from the tendinous intermuscu¬ 
lar septum, between it and the flexor carpi digi¬ 
torum sublimis, and from the olecranon process 
of the ulna; between these two heads the ulnar 
nerve is situated; its origin from the ulna is 
not limited to the olecranon process, for it con¬ 
tinues its connexion with that bone nearly as 
low down as the origin of the pronator quad- 
ratus. This muscle, which arises tendinous 
and fleshy, merges into tendinous fibres on its 
anterior surface at the upper part of the lower 
third of the fore-arm. The tendon by degrees 
becomes more rounded, but does not cease to 
receive fleshy fibres until it terminates by be¬ 
coming inserted into the annular ligament and 
os pisiforme. 
The flexor carpi ulnaris, forming the inner 
margin of the muscles of the fore-arm, is in 
contact with the fascia : its external edge touches


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