Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

The Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology, vol. 2: Dia-Ins
Todd, Robert Bentley
With respect to the causes of nausea they 
may be reduced to two heads ; those that act 
immediately on the stomach, and those that 
act, in the first instance, on the system at large. 
Of the first class the most active in their opera¬ 
tion are the medicinal substances which are 
specifically styled emetics, from their peculiar 
tendency to produce nausea and subsequent 
vomiting. Besides these certain kinds of food, 
or food of any description, if it remain in an 
undigested state, and various substances of an 
acrid or stimulating nature frequently produce 
nausea and vomiting. In the second class of 
causes we have to enumerate various circum¬ 
stances, which act upon parts of the body, 
sometimes very remote from the stomach, but 
which, either by direct nervous communica¬ 
tion, by sympathy, or association, produce the 
effect in question. One of the most powerful 
of these is the motion of a vessel at sea, giving 
rise to the well-known and most distressing 
sensation of sea-sickness, certain morbid affec¬ 
tions of the brain, particular odours and flavours, 
renal and biliary calculi, herniæ or other affec¬ 
tions of the intestinal canal, and lastly, certain 
causes which can act only through the medium 
of the mind or imagination. These various 
circumstances, although so extremely different 
in their nature and origin, agree in producing 
a similar effect on the stomach, which may be 
explained by referring to the nervous com¬ 
munications which exist between the organ 
and every part of the system, and more espe¬ 
cially with the other abdominal viscera and the 
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(J. Bostoch.) 
DIGESTIVE CANAL (Comp. Anat.) — 
The digestive canal is that cavity of the body 
which is destined to receive the food of animals 
and to retain it until its nutritious part has been 
separated or absorbed. It is termed also the 
alimentary or the intestinal canal. As it is the 
part into which foreign matter is first conveyed 
for the nutriment of the system, its forms and 
structure are most intimately related to the kind 
of food, and consequently to the living habits 
and instincts, and the whole mechanism of 
animals. The most universal organs in the 
animal kingdom are the digestive, and most of 
the others may be considered as secondary or 
subservient to these. The lowest animals pre¬ 
sent us with no other organs than those sub¬ 
servient to digestion, and almost all the organs


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